In-Situ vibrational spectroscopic studies on model catalyst surfaces at elevated pressures
Topics in Catalysis
11569 - 1592
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Elucidation of complex heterogeneous catalytic mechanisms at the molecular level is a challenging task due to the complex electronic structure and the topology of catalyst surfaces. Heterogeneous catalyst surfaces are often quite dynamic and readily undergo significant alterations under working conditions. Thus, monitoring the surface chemistry of heterogeneous catalysts under industrially relevant conditions such as elevated temperatures and pressures requires dedicated in situ spectroscopy methods. Due to their photons-in, photons-out nature, vibrational spectroscopic techniques offer a very powerful and a versatile experimental tool box, allowing real-time investigation of working catalyst surfaces at elevated pressures. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS or IRRAS), polarization modulation-IRAS and sum frequency generation techniques reveal valuable surface chemical information at the molecular level, particularly when they are applied to atomically well-defined planar model catalyst surfaces such as single crystals or ultrathin films. In this review article, recent state of the art applications of in situ surface vibrational spectroscopy will be presented with a particular focus on elevated pressure adsorption of probe molecules (e.g. CO, NO, O-2, H-2, CH3OH) on monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces (e.g. Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Au, Co, PdZn, AuPd, CuPt, etc.). Furthermore, case studies involving elevated pressure carbon monoxide oxidation, CO hydrogenation, Fischer-Tropsch, methanol decomposition/partial oxidation and methanol steam reforming reactions on single crystal platinum group metal surfaces will be provided. These examples will be exploited in order to demonstrate the capabilities, opportunities and the existing challenges associated with the in situ vibrational spectroscopic analysis of heterogeneous catalytic reactions on model catalyst surfaces at elevated pressures.