XPS for probing the dynamics of surface voltage and photovoltage in GaN
Applied Surface Science
25 - 30
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We describe application of two different data gathering techniques of XPS for probing the dynamics of surface voltage and surface photovoltage (SPV) developed in microseconds to seconds time-domain, in addition to the conventional steady-state measurements. For the longer (seconds to milliseconds) regime, capturing the data in the snapshot fashion is used, but for the faster one (down to microseconds), square wave (SQW) electrical pulses at different frequencies are utilized to induce and probe the dynamics of various processes causing the surface voltage, including the SPV, via the changes in the peak positions. The frequency range covers anywhere from 10(-3) to 10(5) Hz for probing changes due to charging (slow), dipolar (intermediate), and electronic (fast) processes associated with the external stresses imposed. We demonstrate its power by application to n- and p-GaN, and discuss the chemical/physical information derived thereof. In addition, the method allows us to decompose and identify the peaks with respect to their charging nature for a composite sample containing both n- and p-GaN moieties.