PACT establishes a posttranscriptional brake on mitochondrial biogenesis by promoting the maturation of miR-181c
Journal of Biological Chemistry
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc.
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The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activating protein (PACT), an RNA-binding protein that is part of the RNA-induced silencing complex, plays a key role in miR-mediated translational repression. Previous studies showed that PACT regulates the expression of various miRs, selects the miR strand to be loaded onto RNA-induced silencing complex, and determines proper miR length. Apart from PACT's role in mediating the antiviral response in immune cells, what PACT does in other cell types is unknown. Strikingly, it has also been shown that cold exposure leads to marked downregulation of PACT protein in mouse brown adipose tissue (BAT), where mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism play a central role. Here, we show that PACT establishes a posttranscriptional brake on mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis) by promoting the maturation of miR-181c, a key suppressor of mitobiogenesis that has been shown to target mitochondrial complex IV subunit I (Mtco1) and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1). Consistently, we found that a partial reduction in PACT expression is sufficient to enhance mitobiogenesis in brown adipocytes in culture as well as during BAT activation in mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate an unexpected role for PACT in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and energetics in cells and BAT. © 2022 The Authors