A survey on wireless position estimation
Wireless Personal Communications
Springer New York LLC
263 - 282
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In this paper, an overview of various algorithms for wireless position estimation is presented. Although the position of a node in a wireless network can be estimated directly from the signals traveling between that node and a number of reference nodes, it is more practical to estimate a set of signal parameters first, and then to obtain the final position estimation using those estimated parameters. In the first step of such a two-step positioning algorithm, various signal parameters such as time of arrival, angle of arrival or signal strength are estimated. In the second step, mapping, geometric or statistical approaches are commonly employed. In addition to various positioning algorithms, theoretical limits on their estimation accuracy are also presented in terms of Cramer-Rao lower bounds.
Cramer–Rao lower bound
Maximum likelihood estimation