Item Open AccessComparing national vs. international coverage of terrorism: A framing analysis of the Reina nightclub terrorist attack(IGI Global, 2022) Alakoc, Burcu Pinar; Ozdora-Aksak, Emel; Ozdora-Aksak, EmelWhile terrorist incidents are physically, psychologically, and financially costly, they also provide targeted governments with a window of opportunity to engage in public diplomacy in the international arena. In the wake of terrorist attacks, leaders of the targeted countries can try to use media outlets to convey intentionally crafted messages and framing strategies, described generally as public diplomacy, to foster dialogue and shape international public opinion. The success of public diplomacy, however, depends on how far these national messages reach, and how effective they are in swaying international public opinion. Drawing on national and international news sources, this study conducts a framing analysis of 40 new stories covering the Reina nightclub terrorist attack, which took place in Istanbul on New Year's Eve of 2017. It analyzes the similarities and differences in the national versus international media coverage of the incident and discusses their implications for the effectiveness of Turkish public diplomacy. Item Open AccessPreferences in the Willingness to Download a COVID-19 Contact Tracing App in the Netherlands and Turkey: Experimental Study(JMIR Publications Inc., 2022-07-01) Folkvord, Frans; Peschke, Lutz; Gümüş Ağca, Yasemin; van Houten, Karlijn; Stazi, Giacomo; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Peschke, Lutz; Gümüş Ağca, YaseminBackground: Despite the worldwide growth in using COVID-19 contact tracing apps (CTAs) and the potential benefits for citizens, governments, health care professionals, businesses, and other organizations, only a few studies have examined the factors affecting the levels of willingness to download a CTA. Objective: This study aimed to investigate individuals’ preferences in the willingness to download a health app. Methods: We conducted an experimental study in 2 countries, the Netherlands (N=62) and Turkey (N=83), using 4 different vignettes (ie, data protection, manufacturer, reward, and gaming models) with different attributes. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the conditions within the vignettes. Results: The results showed that data protection and gaming elements are factors that influence the willingness to download a COVID-19 CTA. More specifically, we see that data protection is an important factor explaining the willingness to download the app in Turkey, whereas including gaming elements significantly affects the willingness to download the app in the Netherlands. Conclusions: COVID-19 CTAs are highly promising to reduce the spread of the virus and make it easier to open up society faster, especially because they can be used quickly and share information rapidly. COVID-19 CTA developers must ensure that their apps satisfactorily and sufficiently address ethical considerations, even in times of crisis. Furthermore, integrating gaming elements in the CTA could enhance the willingness to download the CTA. Item Open AccessThe development workshop cooperative giving voice to the voiceless(Routledge, 2021-11-04) Özdora Akşak, Emel Işıl; Dimitrova, Daniela V.; Özdora Akşak, Emel IşılThis case study presents the case of a specific NGO from Turkey, the Development Workshop Cooperative (DWC), and reveals how the organization engages in advocacy for marginalized communities. Turkey fosters an active NGO scene, especially since the arrival of Syrian refugees in 2011. The DWC is one of the few local NGOs working to provide a voice to the most marginalized populations – namely, the Syrian Dom community, whose members are typically ignored by the Turkish and Syrian governments alike and tend to fall under the radar of most mainstream media due to the lack of access to this specific ethnic group. The Development Workshop Cooperative is also a unique NGO as it is innovatively structured as a non-profit cooperative. The main goal of this chapter is to reveal the communication and advocacy efforts of this innovative NGO to help create awareness about marginalized communities in Turkey and to foster social change and development. This qualitative study presents detailed interviews with two social development experts from the DWC to reveal their working structures, priorities, ongoing projects and advocacy efforts, media relations, main challenges they face, as well as their goals for the future in their work for disadvantaged communities in Turkey. The findings are discussed to reveal strategies for enhanced communication and advocacy for civil society organizations in their work to support disadvantaged and marginalized communities. Item Open Access“Waging war” for doing good? The fortune global 500’s framing of corporate responses to COVID-19 pandemic(MDPI, 2022-03-01) Uysal, Nur; Akşak, Emel Özdora; Akşak, Emel ÖzdoraThis study examined corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication and pandemic responses of large corporations across multiple industries in a global context. Specifically, this research (1) described the state of CSR communication during the pandemic, and (2) identified how top global Fortune 500 corporations framed their COVID-19 pandemic responses as part of their social advocacy. An in-depth content analysis of the corporate communication messages revealed that top global corporations positioned their pandemic responses as an extension of their ongoing CSR commitment, prioritizing their philanthropic responsibilities over the ethical, legal, and economic responsibilities. They often relied on war metaphors, portraying the virus as the “common enemy” and employees as “heroes,” and highlighted their leadership role in the global “fight” against the pandemic as a “partner” of governments, “protector” of employees, and “supporter” of the communities. Analyzing a large data set from a global perspective, this study provides a comprehensive look at the state of CSR communication during the pandemic and demonstrates how corporations as authoritative societal actors help shape the ongoing discourse on the global COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the study makes several practical and theoretical contributions to sustainability research and our understanding of the evolving relationship between business and society. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Item Open AccessThrough the lenses of morality and responsibility: Brics, climate change and sustainable development(Uluslararası İlişkiler Konseyi Derneği İktisadi İşletmesi, 2022-09-05) Kıprızlı, Göktuğ; Kıprızlı, GöktuğThe aim of this article is to shed a broader light on the social identity of the BRICS group of countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) whose growing economic power is the defining motive of their social construct in international relations. In line with this purpose, the article examines the BRICS nations’ positions concerning the moral aspect and the notion of responsibility for the nexus between climate change and sustainable development. This article argues that their statements and discourse on climate change and sustainable development forge the process of constructing a separate group identity for the BRICS partners. The articulation of moral appraisals and the notion of responsibility in the areas of climate change and sustainable development help the BRICS countries build their self-conception and self-categorization corresponding to their identity as emerging powers, so their actions are accomplished accordingly. Item Open AccessPreferences in the intention to download a COVID tracing app: A discrete choice experiment study in the Netherlands and Turkey(Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-06-24) Folkvord, Frans; Peschke, Lutz; Gümüş Ağca, Yasemin; van Houten, Karlijn; Stazi, Giacomo; Roca-Umbert, Ana; Güneş Peschke, Seldağ; Seyfafjehi, Seyedehshahrzad; Gallego, Alba; Gaeta, Eugenio; Fico, Giuseppe; Karinsalo, Anni; Lupianez Villanueva, Francisco; Peschke, Lutz; Gümüş Ağca, Yasemin; Seyfafjehi, SeyedehshahrzadIntroduction: High levels of adoption and usage for the COVID Tracing Apps (CTA) among the population is a stipulated prerequisite for success of the implementation of these apps, aiming to mitigate the pandemic and track spreading of the virus more efficient and effectively. In the current study, the main objective was to investigate individuals' preferences in the intention to download a COVID-19 tracing app in a pilot-study in both the Netherlands and Turkey. Methods: We conducted a discrete choice experimental study through an online survey in two countries (the Netherlands [N = 62] and Turkey [N = 83]), with four different attributes: (1) data protection (data protection vs. no information), (2) manufacturer (government vs. company), (3) reward (no reward vs. voucher as a reward) and (4) gaming (no gaming elements vs. gaming elements). Participants were recruited among a student population. Results: The results showed that data protection is one of the most important factors that significantly increases the probability to adopt a CTA. In general, the manufacturer, reward or gaming affected the probability to download the CTA less. Discussions: Health authorities worldwide have generally released high quality CTA, although scientific studies assessing the most important factors that describe and predict the intention to download is limited. Sensitive personal data is collected through these apps, and may potentially threaten privacy, equality and fairness, which are important attributes to take into account when developing or launching a CTA, following the results of this study. Copyright © 2022 Folkvord, Peschke, Gümüş Ağca, van Houten, Stazi, Roca-Umbert, Güneş Peschke, Seyfafjehi, Gallego, Gaeta, Fico, Karinsalo and Lupianez Villanueva. Item Open AccessReward mechanisms in Covid-19 tracking apps and its impact on the voluntary participation of the public in sustainable innovation processes(Marmara Üniversitesi, 2022-04-29) Peschke, Lutz; Peschke, Seldağ Güneş; Ağca, Yasemin Gümüş; Seyfafjehi, Seyedehshahrzad; Dündar, Irmak; Aydoğdu, Yasin; Peschke, Lutz; Ağca, Yasemin Gümüş; Dündar, IrmakThe COVID-19 pandemic is the first pandemic after smartphones penetrated society globally. Consequently, there are not sufficient experiences and understanding of how to engage citizens in information and scientific processes that create public awareness and responsibilities according to scientific needs. For effective measures aiming to sustain the pandemic crisis, an efficient collaboration of academia, economy, culture-based, and media-based public and politics is crucial. With help of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) approach for assessment, COVID-19 tracking apps (CTAs) of different countries are analysed with help of a qualitative content analysis according to their reward mechanisms. The analysis includes correlation different rewards to voluntary participation. The MARS approach consists of engagement, functionality aesthetics and information quality. The protection of voluntariness is understood as the fundamental need for the ethical use of CTAs. Accordingly, patterns of voluntariness are examined in the context of legal, ethical privacy and security policies of selected CTAs. In this context, this paper will provide categories and criteria for CTA usage and its impact on citizen engagement in the Quintuple Helix collaboration process aiming to get insights into features and functionalities needed in CTAs and increased voluntary use of the public. Item Open AccessFor generation Z: What is the underlying reason between emotional intelligence and depression relationship?(Sosyoekonomi Society, 2022-07-29) İnanç, Ebru Evrensel; Aydoğmuş, Ceren; Camgöz, Selin Metin; Özdilek, Elif; İnanç, Ebru Evrensel; Aydoğmuş, Ceren; Özdilek, ElifExploring the individual characteristics of Generation Z becomes crucial with this generation's increasing number and significance in business life. This study investigates the mediating role of life satisfaction on emotional intelligence and depression linkage. It examines whether the mediating role is contingent upon Generation Z’s majors (STEM/non-STEM) and gender. The universe was Generation Z university senior students. Data were gathered via an online survey (emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, depression scales) from 844 university students. Findings reveal that emotional intelligence decreases depression via life satisfaction. Gender moderated this relationship so that the mediating role of life satisfaction was more pronounced in female Generation Z. Item Open AccessWalking through firewalls: Circumventing censorship of social media and online content in a networked authoritarian context(SAGE Publications Ltd, 2022-11-19) Dal, Aysenur; Nisbet, Erik C.; Dal, AysenurThe early hopes of the internet as a technology of “liberation” have turned into a reinforcing spiral of control, innovation, resistance, and counter-innovation between authoritarian governments and those that seek to bypass censorship and digital repression. This spiral reflects that even the most robust censorship mechanisms are vulnerable to circumvention, which has become a key concept for illustrating the contemporary online communication experience of citizens. Yet, the scholarship examining the underlying motivations and what influences individuals to employ censorship circumvention technologies (CCTs) in authoritarian contexts remains underdeveloped. We present a theoretical model of how state-sponsored political identity and attitudes about media freedom influence motivated resistance to censorship in the case of using CCTs to access social media and other forms of online content in the networked authoritarian context of Iran. Employing a web-based survey of internet users (N = 807), we test this theoretical model across a range of censored online content types. Our findings show that regime ideology in Iran indirectly influences CCT use through biasing perceptions of media freedom and how people respond to it in the form of motivated resistance. We discuss theoretical and policy-related implications for resilience to censorship of social media and online content in networked authoritarian contexts. © The Author(s) 2022. Item Open AccessChildren's mobile communicative practices and locational privacy(Oxford University Press, 2022-09-01) Özkul, Didem; Özkul, DidemChildren start using smartphones increasingly from early ages. This makes it more difficult for them to develop an understanding of online privacy and managing their personal data. Many parents monitor and regulate children's online media use. However, they also encourage using smartphones to ensure the safety and security of their children. This study explores how children use smartphones in relation to their understanding of privacy of communication, content, data, and location. It examines data from 7 focus groups with arts-based methods conducted with 37 children in UK. The findings suggest that children think of their smartphones as a private communication technology and a private place, and they manage their locational privacy based on the necessity of using a mobile app and through adjusting the location settings on their phones. The findings also suggest that privacy of mobile data and user content are dependent on where mobile communication takes place. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Communication Association. Item Open AccessSultan of the mornings: Seda Sayan and daytime talk shows in Turkey(Routledge, 2022-08-08) Acar, Aysın Ece; Acar, Aysın EceSince the beginning of her career in the 1980s, Seda Sayan has become one of the biggest popular culture icons in Turkey, sustaining a multifaceted career in entertainment that includes singing, acting, and, most influentially, television. Sayan’s career trajectory from wedding singer to the ‘Sultan of the Mornings’ illustrates how the Turkish celebrity industry works, and the evolution of her persona as a talk show host tracks the development of the genre format in Turkey. This article considers Seda Sayan’s daytime talk shows in order to better understand how she built her televisual empire among strong competition to become an exceptional force in Turkish television history. Her shows illustrate identity construction practices over time and have secured her place in Turkish entertainment. Taking this chapter in Sayan’s career as its case study, this article offers a brief introduction to the operations of celebrity culture and contemporary media industries in Turkey. Item Open AccessTeaching L’Opéra-Mouffe (1958)(Intellect, 2022) Kennedy-Karpat, Colleen; Kennedy-Karpat, ColleenThis article describes the advantages of teaching Agnès Varda’s early short film L’Opéra-Mouffe, known in English as Diary of a Pregnant Woman, in an introductory course on film form. This award winning, sixteen-minute film offers a compelling demonstration of the core characteristics of the essay film, along with readily teachable examples of visual metaphor, cinematography, sound, and editing. Its cultural and auteurist contexts can also complement a variety of curricular topics, including the French New Wave and Left Bank creators, post war France, and feminist filmmaking. Finally, its focus on Varda’s personal experience of pregnancy also makes L’Opéra-Mouffe an ideal vehicle to introduce radical feminist pedagogies that recognize and value personal experience as a valid way of knowing about the world. Item Open AccessReconfiguring Senegalese filmmakers as Griots: Identity, migration and authorship practice(Intellect, 2022) Kayır, Oğuz; Kayır, OğuzThis article aims to designate the notion of ‘Griot’ – the oral transmitter of history in West African cultures to the eclectic filmmakers from the post-independence period of Francophone Senegal who utilized film as an instrument to reassemble their nation’s lost image and carve an independent national identity that seeks liberation from the remnants of French imperial rule. Figuratively performing as Griots in the postcolonial film corpus, directors Ousmane Sembéne, Djibril Diop Mambéty and Mati Diop fabricated an original filmic language that represents the cultural milieu of Senegal after the French colonialism. In these directorial endeavours, the incorporation of narration elements plays a pivotal role in simultaneously manufacturing the agencies of Senegalese people and accelerating the continuum of decolonization in the country’s visual domain. Including the historical framework of Senegal’s cinema and illustrating the analogy between Griots and these filmmakers, this research will take a closer look at the corresponding postcolonial narratives of Ousmane Sembéne’s La Noire de… (1966), Djibril Diop Mambéty’s Touki Bouki (1973) and Mati Diop’s Atlantics (2019) in an effort to unravel their tumultuous identity politics, critiques of (neo)colonialism and filmmakers’ role as national raconteurs. Item Open AccessSocial-Psychology of Vaccine Intentions: The Mediating Role of Institutional Trust in the Fight Against Covid-19(Springer, 2022-04-15) Dal, Aysenur; Tokdemir, Efe; Dal, Aysenur; Tokdemir, EfeThis paper examines the social-psychological mechanisms behind how citizens deal with uncertainties stemming from the COVID-19 vaccine developments in societies with prominent social/political cleavages. We argue that existing social/political tensions influence individuals’ trust in institutions that are responsible for coping with crises through a motivated reasoning mechanism, which eventually shapes citizens’ COVID-19 vaccine intentions. Using a nationally representative face-toface survey conducted in the pre-vaccination period in Turkey, we demonstrate that both self-identifying as a Kurd or feeling close to an opposition party are associated with lower trust in institutions actively dealing with the pandemic, which in turn, results in weaker intentions for getting vaccinated. Testing our full theoretical model reveals that while ethnic and partisan identities do not directly influence vaccine intentions, they exhibit an indirect negative effect via institutional trust impeding the fight against the pandemic. We show that it is difficult to tackle a sudden collective threat that requires public cooperation with health policies if the society is strongly polarized. Our findings offer key policy implications for the vaccination phase of the pandemic, and contribute to the domains of public health, conflict studies and individual judgment and decision-making about social risks. Item Open AccessSignaling silence: Affective and cognitive responses to risks of online activism about corruption in an authoritarian context(SAGE, 2022) Dal, Aysenur; Nisbet, Erik C.; Kamenchuk, Olga; Dal, AysenurNetworked authoritarian governments’ use of digital repression creates uncertainty and amplifies risk signals for ordinary citizens using social media for political expression. Employing theoretical frameworks from the risk and decision-making literature, we experimentally examine how citizens perceive and respond to the risks of low-effort forms of online activism in an authoritarian context. Our online field experiment demonstrates that emotional responses to the regime’s risk signals about online activism drive decisionmaking about contentious online political expression as compared with cognitive appraisal of risk. Moreover, the relationship between anticipatory emotions and contentious online political expression varies significantly depending on individuals’ involvement with the controversial topic of expression. We discuss the importance of emotions and citizen risk judgments for understanding online activism within networked authoritarian contexts. Item Open AccessMobile times and temporalities: Histories of geomediation of time(SAGE, 2022) Özkul, Didem; Humphreys, Lee; Özkul, Didem; Humphreys, LeeThe mobile ontology of locative media and ubiquity of location-aware technologies have led to an explicit focus on “where” and an implicit focus on “when” in geomedia studies. While welcoming this focus, we argue that this spatial bias has led the temporal dimensions of geomedia to be overlooked. Despite the growing interest that draws academic attention to mediation of time and temporal dimensions of media and data practices, there is still limited discussion on time and temporality of geomedia. We aim to fill this gap and open a debate about the temporality of geomedia based on seven oral history interviews that we conducted with mobile media scholars who pioneered in research in mobile phones from late 1990s onwards. These historical accounts include the narratives of how mobile phones were used for time-keeping, synchronizing, presencing, and coordinating everyday life. Hence, this article grounds mediation of time in the histories of geomedia. Item Open AccessThe Voice as a narrative element in documentary films(University of California Press * Journals Division, 2021-03-01) Önen, Ufuk; Önen, UfukModern documentary filmmakers use fiction-influenced narrative styles that blur the boundaries between fact and fiction, stretching the limits and rules of the genre set by what is referred to as classic or expository documentary. Another major change in the documentary form and narrative style is the inclusion of the filmmaker in the film. As a result of filmmakers starring in their own films, interacting with the subjects, and narrating the story themselves, documentaries have become more personality driven. In these modern methods, the voices of the narrators and/or the filmmakers carry a significant importance as narrative elements. Taking five music-related documentary films into account—Lot 63, Grave C (Sam Green); Crossing the Bridge: The Sound of Istanbul (Fatih Akin); Metal: A Headbanger’s Journey (Sam Dunn, Scot McFadyen, and Jessica Joywise); The Decline of Western Civilization Part II: Metal Years (Penelope Spheeris); and Searching for Sugar Man (Malik Bendjelloul)—this paper analyzes how the voices of the narrators and/or the filmmakers are used as narrative elements, and what effects these voices have on the narrative styles and the modes of these documentaries. KEYWORDS documentary, voice, narrative style, sound Item Open AccessParis in the dark: Going to the movies in the city of light, 1930–1950.(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2021-05-19) Kennedy-Karpat, Colleen; Kennedy-Karpat, Colleen Item Open AccessSüreğen medya platformları: izleyici etkinliğinin dönüşümü ve toplumsal etkileri(Ankara Universitesi Iletisim Fakultesi, 2021) Özgün, A.; Treske, Andreas; Treske, AndreasSüreğen medya platformları, günümüzde anlatısal metinler için televizyon ve sinemayı ikame edecek yeni bir dolaşım/dağıtım biçimi olarak ortaya çıkıyor. Fakat bu dolaşım biçimine has izleme etkinliğinin zamansal ve mekânsal koşulları ve ön plana çıkardığı anlatısal aygıtlar, onu geçmişteki sinema ve televizyon izleyiciliğinden farklı şekilde yapılandırıyor. Süreğen medya platformları, taşınabilir medya teknolojilerinin de yardımıyla, izleyici etkinliğini zamansal ve mekânsal kısıtlarından kurtarıp sürekli, her yerde ve her zaman ulaşılabilir hale getiriyor. Bu pratik, sadece sinema ve televizyon izleyiciliğinin kurucu niteliği olan kamusallığın uzağında, yalıtılmış, sterilize bir iletişim tecrübesi yaratmakla kalmıyor; ilk bakışta kişisel ve kişiye özel gibi görünen bu yeni iletişim süreci esasında algoritmik süreçler aracılığıyla düzenlenerek platform kapitalizminin kontrol aygıtlarından birine dönüşüyor. Bu yazıda amacımız süreğen medya platformlarının dayattığı bu yeni izleyici etkinliğinin içinde kurulduğu koşulları kuramsal düzeyde analiz etmek ve bu koşulların kamusal yaşama etkisini sorgulamaya girişmek. Streaming media platforms are increasingly replacing cinema and television as the dominant means of narrative-content distribution, yet viewing media on these platforms differs in important ways from cinema and television spectatorship, both through the narrative and interactive possibilities they allow, but also through the temporal and spatial conditions they impose on audiences. With the help of the mobile media technologies they are delivered through, streaming media platforms free audiences from the temporal and spatial limitations of cinema and television and offer a continuous yet isolated viewing experience. Algorithmically regulated and customized program flow and the accompanying illusion of interactivity create a “privatized” viewing experience which contrasts with the “publicness” and “collectiveness” of that of cinema and television. In this article, we discuss the novel conditions imposed on viewers by streaming media platforms at a conceptual and theoretical level and interrogate their impact on public life.