Item Open AccessThe international competitiveness of Turkish leather exports(Harvard Institute for International Development, 2000) Zaim, Katalin Item Open AccessThe impact of environmental regulations on exports: case study results from Cyprus, Jordan, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey(Elsevier, 2002) Zaim, K. K.; Larson, B. A.; Nicolaides, E.; Al Zu'bi, B.; Sukkar, N.l; Laraki, K.; Matoussi, M. S.; Chouchani, C.Concern about the effects of environmental policies on trade competitiveness continues to grow in the non-EU Mediterranean regions (e.g., North Africa, the Middle East, Turkey, Cyprus). While the impact of environmental regulations on exports is widely discussed in the region, there has been little empirical analysis of how more stringent environmental regulations might affect exports of key sectors in the future. This paper summarizes the results of six case studies that estimate the impact of potential changes in environmental regulations on exports from a key sector in each country. These case studies, which are based on a theoretically consistent yet empirically tractable modeling approach, suggest that a range of outcomes is likely and depends on a fairly small set of specific information. For some of the cases, expected regulatory changes would probably have little impact on exports, while in other cases the impacts could be substantially larger. In some countries, the range of potential outcomes is largely due to the magnitude of the policy change, the importance of various inputs in production, and the lack of information on international market conditions. Copyright © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Item Open AccessEstimation of health and economic benefits of air pollution abatement for Turkey in 1990 and 1993(Elsevier, 1997-11) Zaim, K. K.An average of 15 million residents of the major cities in Turkey were exposed to particulate matter (PM10) and SO2 levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) standards in the 1990–1993 period. An assessment of the health effects due to particulate matter (PM10) and exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) suggests that, if annual PM10 and SO2 levels were reduced to WHO standards, this could have brought a reduction of 5940 and 5480 hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, 121,400 and 112,100 emergency room visits, 8.26 and 6.85 million restricted activity days and 57,000 and 73,000 cases of low respiratory symptoms in children 0–12 years of age in 1990 and 1993 respectively. The estimated annual economic value of avoiding these effects is nearly 0.12% and 0.08% of the 1990 and 1993 gross national product (GNP). Furthermore, the results show that, by attaining WHO air pollution standards, 3310 and 3060 lives could have been saved in 1990 and 1993 respectively. Copyright © 1998 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Item Open AccessEmissions due to fossil-fuel consumption and cement production in Turkey (1970-1991)(Elsevier, 1996-04) Zaim, K. K.Standard emission factors are used for estimating levels of particulate matter (PM), SOx, CO, volatile organic compounds (VOC), NOx and CO2. Results are presented for different fuels and energy-consuming sectors. In the early 1970s households utilizing lignite made the most significant contributions to emissions, while manufacturing industries with both lignite and petroleum utilization were responsible for SOx, NOx, and PM emissions. Households continued to produce the same CO and VOC emissions and manufacturing industries continued to be responsible for NOx emissions through the 1970–1990 period. Power production had gained in importance with regard to SOx, CO2, and PM emissions by 1990.