Item Open AccessNeed satisfaction as a mediator between classroom goal structures and students' optimal educational experience(Elsevier, 2018) Alp, A.; Michou, Aikaterini; Çorlu, M. S.; Baray, G.; Michou, AikateriniGoal-related messages in a classroom are associated with students’ experiences and functioning in learning. However, little is known about need satisfaction as a mediator that translates the classroom messages into students’ optimal educational experience. In the present studies, we investigated in a sample of 171 (in Study 1) and 255 (in Study 2) Turkish undergraduate students (60% females; Mage = 19.79, SD = 1.68 and 45% females, Mage = 19.75, SD = 1.67 respectively), the relation of classroom goal structures to students’ educational satisfaction (or vitality) and state flow through their experience of need satisfaction considering it as the psychological mediator. Path analysis with bootstrap showed that mastery goal structures (i.e., classroom environment focuses on learning and self-improvement) were positively related to need satisfaction while performance goal structures (i.e., classroom environment focuses on normative success) were either negatively related (Study 1) or unrelated (Study 2) to need satisfaction. Path analysis with bootstrap also showed that mastery goal structures were related to vitality, educational satisfaction and flow in class-related tasks through need satisfaction. Understanding need satisfaction as a mediator of classroom goal structures and optimal educational experience help teachers to reconsider their goal-related messages in the classroom. Item Open AccessExploring impact of absent students on scale properties of student ratings of instruction in Turkey(Sciedu Press, 2019) Kalender, Ilker; Kalender, IlkerIn the present study comparability or ranking of instructors based on student ratings were investigated under the effect of absenteeism. To this end, invariance of scale properties of student ratings was examined via multigroup confirmatory analysis. Using randomly selected 2098 classes, equality of factorial structure, factor loadings, intercepts and residuals were tested. Results indicated that absent and regularly attending groups have developed the same conceptual meaning for the term instructional effectiveness. Also, ratings in the both groups of classes had a common unit, which makes within-class comparisons of instructors separately for attending and absent groups possible. However instructors who teach classes with absent students systematically receive lower ratings, indicating a bias between the two groups. Student ratings were adjusted against absenteeism to lessen the effect of bias. Results showed significant differences in the rankings of top-rated instructors both before and after the adjustment. Biased ratings pose a serious threat in comparability between instructors who teach absent and attending classes. Thus decisions involving instructors should be supported by other assessment mechanisms.