Dept.of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design - Ph.D. / Sc.D.

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  • ItemEmbargo
    Developing wideband acoustic absorbers in interior spaces: modelling, measurements and applications
    (Bilkent University, 2024-01) Fasllija, Ela
    This study aims to develop wideband acoustic absorbers in interior spaces for speech purposes, through the use of Micro-Perforated Panels (MPPs) arranged in different configurations. The research has involved theoretical modelling, measurements, and applications in interior spaces. The initial phase focused on modelling various MPP arrangements and predicting their sound absorption coefficients using the Electric Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) under normal and oblique incidence conditions. Small samples with different geometric parameters were then manufactured and tested for their absorption coefficients at the Turkish Standards Institute, following the impedance tube method (ISO 10534-2:1998). The preliminary results showed a good agreement with the numerical predictions. Furthermore, the random incidence absorption coefficient of a parallel arranged MPP structure was measured in a Small-Scale Reverberation Room (SSRR) at Bilkent University to evaluate the proposed structure in a diffuse field. The results obtained by using ISO 354:2003 showed lower values than the predicted ones by a range of 0.1- 0.3. However, there was a better alignment between the ECM predictions and experimental results for 30-degree oblique incidence. Regarding interior applications, a classroom with poor acoustics was treated in ODEON 16 using the proposed material in the form of a wall panel. The effect of the developed material on objective room acoustics parameters was examined, revealing improvements in the Reverberation Time and Speech Intelligibility Index values. Lastly, the Turkish versions of Perceived Affective Qualities outlined in the ISO/TS 12913-2:2018 standard were developed to assess the subjective perception of the material following the soundscape approach.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The impact of design and non-design elements on the restorative potential of home environments
    (Bilkent University, 2023-12) Aksel, Elif
    The restorative potential of indoor settings, particularly in the residential context, has not been extensively investigated in the existing literature, despite research on restorative environments indicating that natural environments have beneficial effects in regulating stress and encouraging pleasant experiences. The present research sought to comprehend the restorative potential of home environments based on the theoretical basis of restorative environments and architectural elements affecting well-being. The study was carried out in two stages. First, the interviews were conducted with 11 adult women, employing the photo-elicitation method to thoroughly reveal the elements that have a role in determining the restoration process in home interiors regarding women’s experiences. Second, through visual stimuli, the effects of selected elements that emerged from the first stage were assessed with 72 respondents regarding their relationships between perceived restorativeness, complexity, and familiarity to validate their role in restoration. A thematic analysis of the data gathered in the first stage suggested that places’ architectural characteristics may be essential in facilitating the restoration process. It was discovered that in addition to architectural features, interacting with family and intimates and performing favorite activities and interests can contribute torestoration. Moreover, the exploratory character of the study identified the value of individual characteristics and personal meanings in determining the restorative potential of the home. The statistical tests were also conducted to explore the relationships between design-related elements regarding perceived restorativeness, complexity, and familiarity. The analyses showed a moderate positive association between perceived restorativeness, complexity, and familiarity. While the spaces with a visual connection to the nearby environment were identified as more restorative, those including natural components were associated with higher complexity. Moreover, the presence of visual access or natural elements contributed to improving the perception of familiarity with the settings. The implications of this study were discussed to propose an approach to creating restorative experiences within architecture and interior design practices.
  • ItemEmbargo
    Evaluation of spaciousness in isolated and confined environments
    (Bilkent University, 2023-12) Diker, Berk
    This thesis explores the adverse psychological effects of Isolated, Confined, and Extreme (ICE) environments, aiming to explore the correlation between these effects and interior architectural elements. In addition, several methods are tested to evaluate interior architectural elements that may directly impact the perceived spaciousness of these environments. The initial phase of the thesis examined the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the perception of interior spaces. Individuals who found their living spaces visually appealing, engaged in various activities, expressed satisfaction with their connections to outdoor spaces, encountered less boredom, and displayed fewer signs of anxiety and psychological distress. The following phase explored the effects of furniture, lighting, surface texture, and ceiling height on spaciousness perception and surveyed emotional and aesthetic responses to various design factors. The results indicated that interior architectural elements have a relatively minor impact on individuals' spatial perception within a habitat. Design training is a more significant influencer in all spatial evaluations than interior architectural elements. Although furniture, lighting, and texture have statistically significant effects on spaciousness and aesthetic judgments, design training remains a substantial moderator of these effects. This research contributes substantially to comprehending the complex dynamics between interior architectural design and human perception. The findings underscore the profound influence of design choices on practical functionality and emotional experiences within confined spaces. The study's implications extend to architects, designers, and policymakers, providing valuable insights for enhancing psychological well-being in ICE environments.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Building empathy in interior architecture education: exploring empathic design and its reflections
    (Bilkent University, 2023-03) Yeşiltepe, Melis
    Integrating empathy to design education enhances students' universal design solutions since empathic design provides a feeling and understanding of a wide range of users' needs in the designed environment or products. This study investigates how using empathic design techniques as instructional design methods influence students’ improvement in the multiple dimensions of empathy, design process and end products, and perceptions of their learning experience. The empirical research is conducted with three groups and a control group who are asked to experience different empathic design techniques (direct contact between designers and users, indirect contact between designers and users, and role-playing) obtaining in the redesign of an existing kitchen and reflecting their learning and design outcomes on an online session in virtual meetings. Qualitative data collection methods consist of behavioral observations, the researcher's logbook, interviews, and design conversation protocols obtained by video recordings of the Zoom meetings. Quantitative data collection methods include using a questionnaire and survey as instruments and assessment of end products. Thematic analysis was conducted to study data from interviews and design. Results indicated that an empathic design process positively indicated students' perceptions of their learning experience and enhanced their self-awareness and design awareness. In addition, empathic design improved students' problem-solving skills, helped them attain universal design solutions easily, and shortened the design process time. The role-playing technique was the most efficient compared to other techniques for raising students' empathy and proposing universal design solutions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using quick response (QR) codes as an indoor wayfinding tool
    (Bilkent University, 2022-12) Tünger, Çetin
    With the advent of the Covid-19 pandemic, the use of quick response (QR) codes has increased rapidly in many areas. However, the adoption of QR code-based indoor wayfinding models is still limited. The reliance on location-aware technologies, the development of smartphone applications, and the need for programming language knowledge could be counted among the reasons for the limited use of these models. In the present study, we proposed a lightweight QR code-based indoor wayfinding model that is low-cost, easy-to-adapt, free of sensors, and solely functions with smartphones. Accordingly, we conducted two experimental studies to test the model under two conditions: first, in a complex university campus building with 38 participants; then in the virtual model of that building with 72 participants. In both environments, we compared the use of You-Are-Here maps displayed on smartphones by scanning the QR codes on the walls (the QR condition) to the use of the same maps located on the walls (the No-QR condition). We measured task performances, perceived ease of task, comfort level, and evaluations of the proposed model. To reveal the relationships between the variables and differences between conditions, we conducted the Pearson correlation coefficient test and repeated measure ANOVA. Our findings revealed that even though the participants completed the wayfinding tasks in the QR condition in a longer time than in the No-QR condition, the positive responses of the participants revealed that they would be willing to use QR codes in complex indoor environments. Findings and evaluations suggested that the proposed model, in its current form, may function as expected and be a useful, lightweight, and low-cost alternative to You-Are-Here maps.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effect of the sound environment on spatial knowledge acquisition in a virtual outpatient polyclinic
    (Bilkent University, 2022-05) Dalirnaghadeh, Donya
    This study examines the impact of the sound environment on spatial knowledge acquisition in a virtual outpatient polyclinic. Outpatient polyclinics have a critical role in determining early outpatient treatments to prevent hospitalization or death and reduce hospital burden. However, they have not been widely investigated in the literature. The studies on spatial knowledge have identified environmental elements mainly related to vision with no focus on sound. Currently, there is limited research on the effect of the sound environment on spatial knowledge acquisition in virtual outpatient polyclinics. In this study, a virtually simulated outpatient polyclinic has been created to analyze the effect of varying levels of visual and audio cues. Eighty participants were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: a control (no visual signage and no sound), a visual (visual signage), an only audio (no landmarks and no visual signage), and an audio-visual group (visual signage, landmarks and sound). The virtual environment was presented as a video walkthrough with passive exploration to test spatial knowledge acquisition with tasks based on the landmark-route-survey model. The results showed that a combination of visual signage, landmarks, and the sound environment resulted in higher spatial knowledge acquisition. No significant difference was found between the performance of the visual group and the control group, which shows that signage alone cannot aid spatial knowledge in virtual outpatient polyclinics. Data from the only audio group suggests that landmarks associated with sound can compensate for the lack of visual landmarks that may help design a wayfinding system for users with visual disabilities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Development of a mixed-method approach to analyze walkability: a case on two urban residential neighborhoods in Ankara
    (Bilkent University, 2021-08) Seles, Emre
    In these times when the devastating effects of global warming are felt, giving up fossil fuels and developing active transportation routes are prerequisites for sustainability in the cities. Walkability was introduced as a key factor in urban planning and the promotion of healthier, environmentally friendly, economically productive, and socially active communities. The main aim of this study is to propose a mixed-method that combines exploratory factor analysis, multi-criteria decision-making analysis, and mapping techniques to analyze the walkability of existing and newly developing urban neighborhood settlements in a metropolitan city and to contribute to the literature in this field. Based on the theories and researches the relationship between perceived and objectively measured walkability was analyzed. This study proposes a bottom-up approach for investigating the walkability factors, rather than seeing walkability as an index of pre-set criteria. The emergent perceived walkability parameters derived from the exploratory factor analysis provided fruitful results for both Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Analysis and Multi-Criteria Overlay Walkability Maps. The findings of this study will provide important clues for both city planners and decision-makers to analyze walkability.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of activity-based office environments on perceived individual and group creativity
    (Bilkent University, 2021-08) Yekanialibeiglou, Sepideh
    This study examined the impact of activity-based offices (ABOs) on individual and group creativity from the employees' perspective. The study was investigated in two stages to find the link between ABOs and the concept of creative spaces, and also to identify and examine mediating variables in this relationship. In the first stage, a qualitative approach was adopted and the critical incident technique was used to collect data from 50 knowledge workers through interviews. Participant observation methods were also conducted for the case studies of three ABOs. In the second stage, a quantitative approach was adopted to collect data from a total of 186 knowledge workers in two international companies based in Sweden. The mixed methods approach was used to triangulate the data from the two stages. The two sets of data were merged by combining the different findings in the section on practical relevance and suggestions for improving environmental designers’ and facility managers’ understanding to manipulate ABO spaces to promote creativity in the workplace. The results showed that privacy, noise levels, and distraction-free environments were the most important factors in fostering individual employee creativity, as were open spaces with zones for different noise levels and private enclosed spaces. For group creativity, the importance of providing appropriate equipment and furniture in ABOs was observed - collaborative and disengaged spaces were found to be the most recurring spaces for group creativity. In addition, employee preferences were found to be an important component to consider when looking at environmental features, space types, and types of creative activities in creativity-enhancing ABOs. Using regression with bootstrapping for quantitative data, it is found that job autonomy and organizational commitment serially mediate this relationship. Study results suggest that organizations with ABOs exert on employees a sense of control over their work, leading them to feel more committed to their organization and consequently improving creativity in the group.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An approach based on sound classification to predict soundscape perception through machine learning
    (Bilkent University, 2021-06) Acun, Volkan
    A growing amount of literature and a series of ISO standards focus on concept, data collection, and data analysis methods of soundscapes. Yet, this field of research still lacks predictive models. We hypothesize that machine learning methods can be used to develop a predictive model by identifying the audio content of soundscapes and correlating it with individuals’ perceived affective response to the soundscapes. Therefore, this research aims to identify machine learning-based sound classification methods for analyzing the audio content of soundscapes and using its output in a second model for evaluating the association between the audio content and perception of the soundscape. We focused on museum soundscapes to conduct our research. The methodology of this thesis is divided into two parts. For the first part, we used Convolutional Neural Networks for classifying the audio content of the soundscape. Due to their limitations, we used a different approach rather than the typical environmental sound classification methods. We used musical instruments for the training dataset and optimized the neural network for this type of task. The convolutional neural network classified the audio content of the soundscapes based on their similarities to the musical instruments of the dataset. We conducted an online soundscape perception survey to measure participants' affective responses to different museum soundscapes for the second part. To predict individuals’ perception of soundscapes, we developed a feedforward neural network model. This model used the audio content output from the sound classification model and the soundscape survey data to predict the perceived affective quality of soundscapes. We concluded the thesis by conducting statistical analyses to explore the association between the variable used in the predictive model.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The use of personas in understanding healthy aging: senior housing experiences through importance performance analysis (IPA) and simulated physical aging
    (Bilkent University, 2020-09) Taşoz, Şevkiye Merve
    Accessibility is an essential interior design consideration that increases performance level and allows older people to be independent and physically active in their daily activities. Increase in performance level and a physically active later life enable healthy aging. Modelling of an accessible senior housing is a necessity of the recent design world. Accessibility of these environments should be studied from older peoples’ perspective with a focus on efficient ranking methods and empathy techniques. This thesis aims to present a new method of combining aging simulation with personas through importance-performance analysis (IPA) to support basic daily living activities (BADL). Juxta-positioning of IPA findings with aging simulation findings to use it for persona method makes this thesis unique. The proposed method helps to develop a prioritized persona-based model to create accessible senior housing for healthy aging. This model is constructed based on a semantic coding system; an ontology framework. The current thesis is an attempt to deal with the complex nature of accessible design and their attributes for aging studies, which are often considered as theoretical concepts and standards. The findings of the thesis are significant for future aging studies and mobile computing researches in terms of indicating that physical capabilities of older people are associated with different requirements of accessibility attributes, which require structured knowledge and data management to diagrammatize their association with BADL. Moreover, thesis findings are also beneficial for interior designers to make human-centered interior design decisions effectively.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The role of color in determining visual complexity in abstract images
    (Bilkent University, 2019-09) Aslanoğlu, Rengin
    Colors are important elements of everyday environment as they effect every part of our daily life including our physiology, psychology, well- being, perception, cognition, and etc. Colors are experienced and encountered in everyday environment and they are never seen in isolation since the environment which surrounds us presents the colors together with other colors (Kocaoğlu & Olguntürk, 2018). The thesis searches the association between color, visual complexity and visual interest in abstract images without isolating colors from each other, as previous studies did. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to understand the role of color on visual complexity and visual interest in abstract images in order to develop a theoretical measure that merges both scientific and artistic approaches of color. This study is conducted to find the level of visual complexity which makes an image visually interesting and the role of color within this phenomenon by using Delta E (ΔE) values of colors in abstract images. As the results of the study indicated, there was an inverted U- curve relationship between average Delta E values and both visual interest and visual complexity in abstract images
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of a colored wall and a colored board on performances of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    (Bilkent University, 2019-09) Öktem, Zeynep
    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) face many challenges throughout their educational lives. This study aims to find out whether there is a board and wall color combination that will help focus their attention in classroom environments. Therefore four experimental settings were prepared in which children with ADHD had to solve specially prepared tests on their most troublesome subjects. Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVAs showed that children with ADHD made significantly less errors in rooms where the board and wall colors were different than each other, in Coding and Matching tests. In the Pair Cancellation test participants performed significantly faster in the room in which both the board and the wall were painted red, compared to the room with white board and white walls. Although there is no significant difference between experimental settings in the reading task, it is observed that the participants with ADHD corrected their mistakes more in rooms with wall and board colors different than each other. As a result, painting the wall behind the board a different color than the board is recommended to help children with ADHD focus their attention more easily in classroom environments. With the findings of the current study it is believed that the use of color in different objects and environments in different educational activities can contribute positively to the learning abilities and mental states of children, young and adults with ADHD.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Impact of object salience in physical and digital exhibitions: a visitor attention study
    (Bilkent University, 2018-10) Zıraman, Ayça Turgay
    More often than not, multiple exhibit objects are displayed, rather than a single exhibit object, in a single exhibition space. This situation might induce a competition for visitor attention between the objects. As an attempt to elucidate the nature of this competition, this study addresses the influence of the salience layout of exhibit objects on the distribution of visitor attention in physical and digital environments. Among various salience parameters previously determined in the literature, size and three-dimensionality are investigated in this thesis. A set of field experiments utilizing unobtrusive observation, and selfadministered questionnaires were employed to collect data. In an alternative approach to the existing visitor studies in Turkey, the empirical design involved a high level of control. The results have revealed the ways visitor attention to individual exhibit objects and exhibitions in overall could be influenced by [1] the presence of a more salient object within a set of less salient objects, [2] ordinal position of exhibit objects with different salience levels, [3] the physical or digital nature of the exhibition space, and [4] size and three-dimensionality as exhibit object parameters.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Colour as an aid for elderly during visuospatial navigation in a virtual polyclinic environment
    (Bilkent University, 2018-09) Süzer, Özge Kumoğlu
    It is well documented that elderly people often have difficulties in finding their way in unfamiliar environments. In this study, it is aimed to explore the usage of colour as visuospatial navigation tool for elderly people with tests in a virtually simulated polyclinic environment. Neutral, warm and cool colour experiment settings were compared to find out the effect of different colours on elderly people’s visuospatial navigation performances by using a head mounted display. The experiment was conducted with 90 participants in three phases; eligibility questionnaires, testing on computer, and presence questionnaire. The findings showed that neutral coloured setting affected participants’ visuospatial navigation performances negatively compared to warm and cool coloured settings. However, there was no significant performance difference between warm and cool coloured environments. In addition to that, when they were asked to reach to the destination point, male participants spent shorter time, did fewer wrong turns, experienced fewer hesitations and travelled shorter distances compared to female participants. Currently, due to the increase in the elderly population, designing well-functioning interior spaces for the elderly has become a more pressing matter. The findings of this study will provide important clues for both interior designers and environmental psychologists.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reading İzmir Culture Park through women’s experiences: matinee practices in the 1970s’ casino spaces
    (Bilkent University, 2018-04) Demirli, Meltem Eranıl
    From its establishment in 1936, Izmir Culture Park (ICP) became a historical marker of Turkish modernity, with its leisure and entertainment spaces celebrating modern values and conditions, while functioning as a medium for adapting them. Casinos, entertainment spaces with live music and food service, were a significant component of the park’s entertainment life from the very beginning. They diverged from their earlier cultural forms and aesthetics during the 1970s in response to the demands in the entertainment sector and the accompanying spatial needs, as well as women’s changing social position in the 1970s. Charting this divergence, and tracing how it came about, this study examines the ways in which ICP’s changing entertainment culture led the way in producing an alternative space -the matinee- for women. This study builds on existing histories of ICP by investigating and introducing new layers of meaning on women’s spatiality. It contributes to gender studies by analyzing how matinees encouraged women to participate in leisure activities, how women experienced this public space, and how they transformed it through their practices in living out their modernity. Women transformed the abstract space of ICP casinos into lived space. By pushing the 1970s social boundaries in Turkey, women both used and transformed the spaces of ICP as they took the opportunity to enjoy their freedom, albeit within the limited space of the casino and the limited time of the matinee. This study deeply investigates this socio-spatial transformation, within a tripartite theoretical structure of memory, gender and Lefebvrian spatial theories, in order to convey ‘herstory’1.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Form and part through standard / non‐standard duality
    (Bilkent University, 2017-09) Kınayoğlu, Gökhan
    This thesis formulates its research through a two‐fold approach: it introduces a novel algorithm, but first it establishes the relationship model through which the assessment of the algorithm should be made. It discusses the intrinsic relation of “form” and “part” in architecture, through the analysis of concepts “standard” and “non‐standard.” The form is the overall shape of an object and part is the numerous constituents of form. “Standard” ‐which is a central trait for architecture‐ and “nonstandard” ‐a later introduction to architecture‐ consisting of various formal alternatives, are included for their important formal and constructional characteristics. All four concepts are studied in their historical contexts and in relation to secondary themes, like tectonics, mass‐production, and masscustomization. Simple essential techniques and various geometric formations in architecture are also covered through built examples to further demonstrate the aspects of “standard” and “non‐standard,” in terms of “form” and “part.” Based on these four concepts, a quadripartite relation is established. The relationship model formulates a significant interpretation and interrelation of the four concepts, hence creates an analytical framework. Through the findings of the quadripartite relation’s last partition, an algorithm is devised. The algorithm can generate various alternative infrastructure models for surfaces of revolution through several parameters. The findings demonstrate essential advantages in terms of standardization, material use, simplicity and ease of assembly. The algorithm can be altered slightly to adapt to other three partitions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces
    (Bilkent University, 2015-06) Odabaşıoğlu, Seden
    The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces. Area in color harmony is the relative amount of different color areas represented as a proportion on which color harmony depends. Colors in the color scheme of an interior space are usually not applied in equal proportions of surface areas and considering the complex relations of colors in interior spaces, it is important to search for the principles of color harmony and area effects in interiors. The secondary aim of the study is to investigate how the term color harmony was defined and the link between color harmony and related terms used to define it. The related terms that are used to define color harmony can explain why a color scheme is evaluated as harmonious. In this study, three primary (red, blue, yellow) and three secondary (green, purple, orange) colors of Itten’s color wheel were studied in a simulated office interior with three-color schemes emphasizing different proportional use of each color. There were four color combinations, each consisting of six images differing in areas of the constituent colors. Firstly, participants evaluated the harmony content of the images by comparing them in pairs. Secondly, they evaluated each image regarding the thirteen terms related to color harmony. Findings indicated that area had an effect on color harmony for two of the color combinations (warm and cool color schemes). However, there were no strong but rather moderate and weak correlations between color harmony and the terms.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Warmth perception in association with colour and material
    (Bilkent University, 2016-08) Ulusoy, Begüm
    Warmth perception is physical, emotional, semantic, and sensorial bond between people and their environments. Warmth is a prominent characteristic of interior architecture and is related to colours and materials. Although the effects of single colours and single materials on warmth have been explored, colours and materials rarely appear alone in interiors and there has been no research on how paired colours and paired materials affect warmth perception in interiors. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate their effects through a seven-point semantic differential scale and open ended questions.192 different participants assessed three different colours (red, white, and green), and their pairs or three different materials (fabric, timber, and plasterboard), and their pairs under controlled conditions. Findings demonstrated that single colours and paired colours both affect warmth perception in interiors. The effects of single colours in interiors are subtle in warmth perception: red is perceived warmer than green and green is perceived warmer than white. All single colours have a moderate level of warmth in interiors as pairs, consequently red (warm colour) appears to increase and white (achromatic colour) appears to decrease the warmth perception of their pairs. Furthermore, as single materials timber and fabric have the same level of warmth and are warmer than plasterboard whereas there is not any difference between pairs. Findings indicated that natural materials are perceived warmer than artificial one.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An approach to integrate lighting concepts into interior design studios : a constructivist educational framework
    (Bilkent University, 2006) Tural, Mehmedalp
    Originating from the inadequacy of teaching and learning frameworks in interior design education and the gap between design studio and supportive courses in design curricula, this study suggests a pedagogical approach for design studios to overcome the disentanglement in interior design education. Within this context, the study introduces a ‘constructivist framework’ as the foundation of an instructional method to recall knowledge from lighting-related courses into the design studio. Constructivism, taking knowledge as temporary, developmental, nonobjective, internally constructed, and socially and culturally mediated, is discussed as one of the most suitable epistemological stances for design education with regards to its problem-based studio education. In order to examine the appropriateness of the suggested approach for integration, students in one of the two design studio sections were given lighting design exercises prepared with reference to constructivist premises, and received constructive feedbacks for their lighting design proposals during the semester, while the other section had no extra exercises and critiques on lighting design. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using quantitative data analysis techniques. The findings demonstrated that incorporation of the constructivist instructional strategies improved the success of students in studio projects in terms of lighting design requirements. Additionally, final jury sessions were recorded and analyzed in relation to the discussions and questions about lighting design dimensions of the projects, with regards to the nature and content of the questions and faculty-related barriers against the integration of lighting concepts. The study is considered also significant for the potential applicability of the proposed educational approach to integrate the other design knowledge areas into design studio for a more comprehensive interior design education.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Understanding the effects of cognition in creative decision-making : a creativity model for enhancing the design studio process
    (Bilkent University, 2005) Hasırcı, Deniz
    The demand for creativity is a significant concern in all educational environments, especially in institutions of design. Considering this, the study aspires to improve creativity in the design studio. Based on the theories and research addressing creativity in the design field, creative decision-making, and cognitive processes during creative activity, this study analyzes the creative process of design in depth by investigating the characteristics of the decisions made through the stages of the process, and means of supporting those decisions for the main purpose of enhancing academic and professional creativity. The study establishes its basic framework by combining two different models: ‘4P’s’ of creativity by Rhodes and the ‘Five Stages of the Sensational Thinking Model’ of O’Neill and Shallross (5R’s), and makes use of the methods of protocol analysis, observation, product assessment, and retrospective interviews. Implemented in the third year design studio in the Interior Architecture and Environmental Design Department, Bilkent University in Turkey, the study yielded significant results on preferred imagery and representation styles and quantity, time spent at different stages of the process, underdeveloped skills, behavior, in addition to student-student and student-instructor relations, and associations between creative processes and products. Moreover, constructive interaction between students was observed to be helpful in developing their ideas, and students who have used more imagery were detected as more creative. A model was proposed to understand the creative process and test the hypotheses, refined according to the study, and presented in a way to be readily utilized or adapted to various situations.