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Item Open Access1680-1747 Ottoman budgets and deficits sustainability in a period of fiscal transition: wars and administrative changes(American Economic Association, 2006) Berument, Hakan; Ocaklı, N.; Berument, HakanThis paper studies the sustainability of the Ottoman budget for the period from 1680 to 1747, during different sultanates and war eras. Moreover, we investigate whether the relationship between government revenues and expenditures changes in the period of culus. The empirical evidence gathered in this paper suggests that during the sample period, except for the sultanate era of Mahmut I, the Ottoman budget was not sustainable. The other interesting result of the study is that culus payments had a significant tax increasing effect. Moreover, the distribution of culus deteriorated the sustainability of budget. Item Open Access1930 lu Yıllar Türkiye sinde Çanakkale savaşları nı anma etkinlikleri ve halkevlerinin rolü(Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, 2015) Ulaş, Tayfun; Ulaş, TayfunÇanakkale Savaşları, Türk halkı için mücadelenin ve zor bir dönemde yeniden varoluşun simgesidir. Çanakkale de kazanılan zafer evrensel mahiyettedir. Müteakiben Millî Mücadele dönemine de büyük etkisi söz konusudur. Bu çalışmada 1930 lu yıllarda, Çanakkale Savaşları nı anma etkinliklerinin nasıl bir süreç içerisinde geliştiği ve yurt genelinde halkın bu etkinliklere katılımının bilhassa Halkevleri kanadı ile ne şekilde olduğu üzerinde durulcaktır. Gerek basında yer alan etkinlikler, gerekse dönemin diğer yayınları ele alınarak bahsi geçen yıllarda gerçekleştirilen Çanakkale Savaşları nı anma etkinlikleri irdelenmeye gayret edilecektir. Item Open Access9/11 was an instance of transnational balancing: An intervention in statist IR theory(SAGE, 2022) Aydinli, Ersel; Aydinli, ErselWith the end of the Cold War and through the start of the 21st century, conventional IR theories were anticipating an eventual balancing against the United States. Puzzled when this phenomenon did not occur, balancing theorists engaged in a lively discussion, bringing with it the development of proposed alternative forms of balancing and a debate over whether the concept itself had perhaps outlived its relevance. This article reengages with this discussion, suggesting that many of the involved theorists were hampered by theoretical blinders based on statism, and that in fact balancing did occur, but in an unconventional manner and at the hands of an unexpected suspect: al Qaeda, a violent non state actor, acting in a transnational manner. In this context, this article treats the 9/11 attacks of the violent Jihadist anti-Western movement as an instance of balancing against the hegemon, a successful one in that the Jihadists arguably aimed not at “winning,” but at revealing the superpower’s weaknesses so that others would subsequently join the balancing effort. By failing to view the Jihadists’ efforts as an ideological balancing effort, the United States responded with force rather than ideational counter-balancing. They waged a war instead of emphasizing efforts to separate the radical violent Jihadist perpetrators from the idea they were championing—a struggle in the name of Muslims/the downtrodden East against the United States—and thus allowing the challenger to rise into a position of "dissident" in the Muslim world, and, arguably, paving the path for today’s state revisionist behaviors. The article proposes a framework based on traditionally state-based concepts of intent and impact/capacity to show how non-state actors can in fact balance superpowers and therefore should be incorporated into balancing theories, and presents the actions of the violent Jihadists as an example of transnational, ideational balancing—a phenomenon as real and consequential as state-balancing. Item Open Access Item Open AccessAbout individual differences in vision(Pergamon Press, 2017) Grzeczkowski, L.; Clarke, A. M.; Francis, G.; Mast, F. W.; Herzog, M. H.In cognition, audition, and somatosensation, performance strongly correlates between different para-digms, which suggests the existence of common factors. In contrast, visual performance in seeminglyvery similar tasks, such as visual and bisection acuity, are hardly related, i.e., pairwise correlationsbetween performance levels are low even though test-retest reliability is high. Here we show similarresults for visual illusions. Consistent with previous findings, we found significant correlations betweenthe illusion magnitude of the Ebbinghaus and Ponzo illusions, but this relationship was the only signif-icant correlation out of 15 further comparisons. Similarly, we found a significant link for the Ponzo illu-sion with both mental imagery and cognitive disorganization. However, most other correlations betweenillusions and personality were not significant. The findings suggest that vision is highly specific, i.e., thereis no common factor. While this proposal does not exclude strong and stable associations between certainillusions and between certain illusions and personality traits, these associations seem to be the exceptionrather than the rule. Item Open AccessAcademics in motion: cultural encapsulation and feeling at home(Wiley-Blackwel, 2004) Tandogan, Z. G.; Incirlioglu, E. O.In this article we explore the concept of "home" and transnational experiences among expatriate academics in a multicultural housing complex of a private university in Ankara, Turkey. The international academics employed by the university and the educators working in the International School that is also located on campus constitute a sizeable proportion of the residents in this housing complex. Although on-campus housing that comes with some degree of cultural encapsulation has considerable advantages for a group of expatriates, it also creates perplexities due to the distant location of the campus from the city center, the limited availability of social contact with the locals, and the "sterility" of the university environment. Based on indepth interviews with a small group of these expatriates, we present the quandaries of cultural encapsulation and feeling at home. Item Open AccessAcceptance and anxiety: Turkey (mostly) embraces Obama's nuclear posture(Routledge, 2011-03) Kibaroglu, M.US nuclear weapons have been an important part of Turkey's security strategy since their first deployment on Turkish soil in the early 1960s. Turkey's NATO membership and its close relationship with the United States have been perceived to be integral to maintaining its security. The release of the 2010 US Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), with its focus on disarmament and reduced reliance on nuclear weapons, has a number of potential consequences for Turkey. This article provides background on the history of Turkish-US nuclear weapons policy in light of issues ranging from Middle Eastern politics to the development of NATO's new Strategic Concept. It then describes how actors in the government, military, and academia in Turkey have reacted to the NPR, why they reacted as they did, and how the Obama administration's initiatives may be received in Turkey in the future. This article concludes that both military and civilian actors in Turkey have reacted favorably to the NPR and are pleased by its emphasis on nuclear nonproliferation and the maintenance of extended deterrence; however, there is less agreement in Turkey about the emphasis placed by the NPR on the danger of nuclear terrorism. Item Open AccessAccounting for externalities in the measurement of productivity growth: the Malmquist cost productivity measure(Elsevier BV, 2005) Ball, E.; Färe, R.; Grosskopf, S.; Zaim, O.This paper starts with the basic premise: that conventional measures of productivity growth-often used as a measure of corporate performance-which ignore external or social output, are biased. We then construct an alternative productivity growth measure using activity analysis which integrates the externality/social output into a generalized productivity measure reflecting social responsibility. This method is very general and could be applied to gauge corporate social responsibility. We provide an application to US agriculture to demonstrate the approach: We show that conventional measures of productivity are biased upward when production of negative externalities (or bad) outputs is increasing. Conversely, this same measure of productivity is biased downward when externalities in production are decreasing. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Item Open AccessAn action research report on the rising democracy discourse in 2000's Turkey: does Eros contour the demos?(Elsevier, 2007) Cindoglu, D.; Boynukara, A.; Akyuz, S.; Bekaroğlu, E. A.This article conceptualizes gender equity and sexual liberty issues that most of the literature on democracy and democratization in Turkey fails to address. The major focus of the article is on the convergent and divergent positions of the rising democratization discourse in contemporary Turkey. When the democratization discourses of different political groups are analyzed, we see that the convergent points consist of legal and constitutional changes that aim at political and economic liberalization, while the divergent points include liberalization in the private sphere and engaging in gender equity and sexual liberty issues. Therefore, we argue that it is crucial to analyze gender equity and sexual liberty issues with more dynamic concepts such as globalization and the EU accession process of Turkey rather than the essentialist ones like Islam. Item Open AccessThe activities of the "Union for the Liberation of Ukraine" in the Ottoman Empire during the First World War(Routledge, 1998) Kırımlı, H. Item Open AccessAdapting, defending and transforming ourselves: conceptualizations of self practices in the social science literature(Sage Publications Ltd., 2015) Karakayali, N.Self practices – mental and bodily activities through which individuals try to give a shape to their existence – have been a topic of interest in the social science literature for over a century now. These studies bring into focus that such activities play important roles in our relationship to our social environment. But beyond this general insight we still do not have a framework for elucidating what kind of roles/uses have been attributed to self practices by social theorists historically. Through an analysis of the works of 5 major contributors to the literature (Durkheim, Mauss, Simmel, Giddens and Foucault), the article highlights three distinct conceptualizations, which draw attention to the adaptive, defensive and transformative uses of self practices. Adaptive uses allow individuals to adjust their conduct to collective norms; defensive uses serve the maintenance and protection of self-identity despite de-individualizing pressures; and transformative self practices target the development of alternative ways of living. It is further suggested that the framework developed in the article can provide important clues about the different ‘practical’ solutions offered by social theorists to the problems that modern individuals face in constituting themselves as autonomous subjects. Item Open AccessAdaptive states and the new transnational security regime(Routledge, 2010) Aydınlı, Ersel; Aydınlı, Ersel Item Open AccessAddressing Kurdish separatism in Turkey(Palgrave Macmillan, 1999) Müftüler-Baç, Meltem; Ross, M. H.; Rothman, J.One of the ongoing themes in descriptions of ethnic conflicts and their settlement is that there is a role for a wide range of interveners. The reason for this may be simple: that there is a great deal which needs to occur before hostile groups can find ways to live together in relativepeace. A well-developed theory of ethnic conflict resolution would not only take into account the roles that different actors can play in the process, but would also offer insights into the particular roles each might play at different stages of a conflict. Item Open AccessAdolescent risk-taking as a function of prenatal cocaine exposure and biological sex(Elsevier Inc., 2014) Allen, J. W. P.; Bennett, D. S.; Carmody, D. P.; Wang Y.; Lewis, M.Objective: To examine the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and biological sex on adolescent risk-taking while controlling for early environmental risk. Methods: Adolescents (n. = 114, mean age. = 16) were grouped according to high and low risk-taking propensity as measured by the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Prenatal cocaine exposure was assessed at birth, while environmental risk was assessed at three points during early childhood. Results: A binary regression analysis indicated that males were 3.5 times more likely than females to be high risk-takers. Biological sex and prenatal cocaine exposure interacted such that exposed males were most likely to be high risk-takers while exposed females were the least likely to be high risk-takers. This pattern held after controlling for prenatal alcohol exposure and early environmental risk. Early environmental risk did not predict adolescent risk-taking. Conclusions: These findings complement and extend earlier research demonstrating that prenatal cocaine exposure interacts with biological sex in domains related to inhibitory control, emotion regulation, antisocial behavior, and health risk behaviors during preadolescence. Item Open AccessAdolescents’ expectations for types of victim retaliation following direct bullying(Springer, 2022-11-23) Marlow, C.; Gönültaş, Seçil; Mulvey, K. L.; Gönültaş, SeçilLittle is known about adolescents’ expectations around how victims of bullying might retaliate following victimization. These expectations are important as they may inform adolescent’s own behaviors, particularly intervention behaviors, in regard to bullying and potential retaliation. This study investigated adolescents’ retaliation expectations and expected bystander reactions to retaliation following physical and social bullying. Participants included 6th grade (N = 450, Mage = 11.73 years, SD = 0.84) and 9th grade (N = 446, Mage = 14.82 years) adolescents (50.2% female, 63.3% European American, 22.9% African American, 3.9% Latino/a, 7% Multiracial, 2.9% Other) from middle-to-low-income U.S. public schools. Participants responded to open-ended prompts about victim responses to bullying, rating retaliation acceptability, and likelihood of engaging in bystander behaviors. ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in retaliation expectation by type of aggression. Further, linear regressions were used to explore what factors were related to participants’ expectations regarding bystander intervention. Participants expected victims to retaliate by causing harm and expected the type of retaliation to match the type of bullying. Younger participants were more specific and males were more likely to expect physical harm than females. Finally, acceptability of retaliation predicted bystander interventions. Adolescents expect aggressive retaliation suggesting that intervention might focus on teaching them ways to respond when they are bullied or observe bullying. Item Open AccessThe Aegean disputes(Foreign Policy Institute, 2004) İnan, Yüksel; Acer, Y.; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali L.; Taşhan, S.The present study aims at evaluating, in their present situation, the Aegean disputes by reflecting particularly the Turkish views of the issues in an objective manner without a particular effort to judge who is right and who is wrong. The review excludes the disputes over the air traffic service (ATS) and the related ones to that and also over the military conducts within NATO, due to both space limitations and the need to focus on the other issues that draw the attention of the public. Item Open AccessAegean territorial waters conflict: an evolutionary narrative(Sage Publications Ltd., 2004) Güner, S. Ş.Delimitation of the territorial waters and continental shelf in the Aegean Sea constitutes a constant source of conflict and produces recurrent crises between Greece and Turkey. This article explores directions that the Greek-Turkish dispute over the delimitation of territorial waters can take through an evolutionary game framework. Crises are found to follow routines and practices involving challenges to the status quo and reactions preceding mutual retreat. Hence, the status quo in the Aegean Sea can persist even in the form of aggressive behavior. It is also possible that the dispute will evolve into a stable state of conflict where no cooperative foreign policy can survive.