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Item Open AccessAbstract «idols» from Troy(Roemisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, 2004) Zimmermann, T.Five abstract Early Bronze Age idols from the Schliemann Collection of Trojan objects in the Römisch-Germanische Zentralmuseum are presented. Apart from their formal classification possible alternative functions of certain types are discussed, for example polishing stones or net weights. Finally the partly abstract, partly naturalistic »Kilia-idols« dating to the Chalcolithic period, are taken to appraise the problem of the genesis of small abstract sculpture in western Turkey. Item Open AccessThe adoption of pictorial imagery in Minoan wall painting: a comparativist perspective(The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 2004) Gates, Charles; Chapin, A.A striking feature of Minoan wall paintings is the sudden adoption of pictorial imagery in the Neopalatial period. This change calls for an explanation, but so far, that explanation has proved elusive. Those specialists in Aegean frescoes who have addressed this problem have focused on the possible artistic antecedents or on the functions of the mural imagery, notably its putative religious and decorative purposes, but have not considered the circumstances that gave rise to such imagery in the first place. This paper will explore these issues of origins and functions, with particular attention paid to Knossos. The explanation proposed here, with the help of three cross-cultural comparisons, is that pictorial imagery in Minoan wall painting resulted from the major political change that marked the transition from the Protopalatial to Neopalatial periods on Crete: the consolidation of island-wide power in Knossos, in the hands not of an auto- crat, but of an oligarchic or theocratic regime. Pictorial imagery, at least in Neopalatial Crete, is not only an artistic preference, but also an ideological choice, an expression of particular political, social, and religious conditions. Item Open AccessAgricultural strategies and the Roman Military in Central Anatolia during the Early Imperial Period(Mersin University, Research Center for Cilician Archaeology, 2013) Bennett, J.A recent review of the palaeoenvironmental and related evidence for the multiperiod site of Gordion has identified a pattern of intensive and ultimately unsustainable land use for the region during the Roman period, a pattern interpreted as resulting from the need for over-production by estate-owners to comply with the “often onerous taxes” levied by the provincial authorities. The nature of these “onerous taxes” is not made clear in that review, but it can be argued that the Roman period intensification of land use at Gordion initially came about from the need to supply food for the legionary and auxiliary troops stationed in Galatia and Cappadocia from the Neronian-Flavian period onwards. This explanation is suggested by the evidence that Gordion served as a Roman military base between the mid-1st and the early 2nd centuries. As the use of the location in this way began almost a full century after Galatia was provincialised, a military presence there at that time is unlikely to have been required for security reasons. In which case there is a strong probability that this activity was somehow linked with the increased military activity in Central and Eastern Anatolia that began in the Neronian-Flavian period. Item Open Access'All that glitters is not gold, nor all that sparkles silver'-fresh archaeometrical data for Central Anatolian Early Bronze Age metalwork(Cambridge University Press, 2009-09) Zimmermann, T.; Yıldırım, T.; Özen, L.; Zararsız, A. Item Open AccessAmong the so-called "mushroom knob joint" of the Anatolian early bronze age-Ceremonial unit between Halysbogen and Cubans(2006) Zimmermann, ThomasThe following contribution focuses upon a group of metal objects of idiosyncratic form, which are known from the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia (3rd millennium BC). These so-called Pilzknaufkeulen or maces with knobbed heads possess a tubular or spherical body which has several rotund or rounded-conical protuberances. Also found in miniature form on jewellery and ceremonial items, the objects likely had a primarily representative or aggrandising function for the bearer, but without were not used as a striking weapon in battle. A glance at pertinent archaeological inventories from the Caucasus shows that earlier forerunners made of stone were as common as later metal Buckelkeule or knobbed maces made of metal. This observation serves as the basis for the renewed discussion of Eurasian and Anatolian interactions during the 4th to 2nd millennia BC. Item Open AccessAnalysis of mortar and plaster samples from Catterick bypass (site 433)(Council for British Archaeology, 2002) Bennett, Julian; Biek, L.; Wilson, P. R. Item Open AccessAnatolia and the Balkans, once again-ring-shaped idols from Western Asia and a critical reassessment of some "Early Bronze Age" items from İkiztepe, Turkey(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007-01) Zimmermann, T.The ring‐shaped idol pendant, a distinctive type of Chalcolithic ritual (?) jewellery, is discussed with regard to its chronology in the Balkans in light of its occasional appearance in Asia Minor. Known from domestic contexts, funerals and hoards (?), none of the so far documented Anatolian pendants (clearly another aspect testifying to the well‐known Anatolian–Balkan connections in the fourth millennium BC) can be dated later than the Late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age I. This fact provides further evidence for the developing hypothesis that certain inventories from İkiztepe, the only prehistoric reference site on the Turkish Black Sea coast excavated on a large scale, need some profound chronological redating. Selected features and levels dated to ‘Early Bronze Age II–III’ at İkiztepe seem to be several centuries older than currently believed, which has implications for the overall chronological range of these pendants. Item Open AccessAnatolia as a bridge from north to south? Recent research in the Hatti heartland(Cambridge University Press, 2007) Zimmermann, T.This paper aims to reappraise and evaluate central Anatolian connections with the Black Sea region and the Caucasus focusing mainly on the third millennium BC. In its first part, a ceremonial item, the knobbed or 'mushroom' macehead, in its various appearances, is discussed in order to reconstruct a possible pattern of circulation and exchange of shapes and values over a longer period of time in the regions of Anatolia, southeast Europe and the Caucasus in the third and late second to early first millennium BC. The second part is devoted to the archaeometrical study of selected metal and mineral artefacts from the Early Bronze Age necropolis of Resuloǧlu, which together with the contemporary settlement and graveyard at Kalinkaya-Toptaştepe represent two typical later Early Bronze Age sites in the Anatolian heartland. The high values of tin and arsenic used for most of the smaller jewellery items are suggestive of an attempt to imitate gold and silver, and the amounts of these alloying agents suggest a secure supply from arsenic sources located along the Black Sea littoral in the north and probably tin ores to the southeast of central Anatolia. This places these 'Hattian' sites within a trade network that ran from the Pontic mountain ridge to the Taurus foothills. Item Open AccessAnatolische "Isisklappern"-Eine Randnotiz zu einigen bronzezeitlichen sistren aus Alaca Höyük und "Horoztepe", Türkei(Roemisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum * Forschungsinstitut fuer Vor- und Fruehgeschichte, 2005) Zimmermann, T.This short contribution focuses on three examples of Early Bronze Age so-called »sistra« or »ceremonial standards«. A critical reappraisal of the published information about the settlement/cemetery of Horoztepe in Northern Central Anatolia yielded the following result: The sistra with handle and spherical bottom allegedly from »Horoztepe« do not come from the 1957 rescue excavation, but were confiscated by the Antiques Service and most likely found in the vicinity of Nallihan near modern Bolu. Only a single »standard« resembling a well-known type from Alaca Höyük can be associated with the findspot Horoztepe. Finally, the type of handle attachment for these objects is discussed. Item Open AccessAnmerkungen zu einer bronzezeitlichen nackenhakenaxt aus dem sammlungsbestand des RGZM(Roemisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum * Forschungsinstitut fuer Vor- und Fruehgeschichte, 2005) Zimmermann, T.In contrast with Early Bronze Age shaft hole axes in stone, their metal counterparts are particularly rare in Asia Minor. So-called »Nackenhakenäxte« (hook-butted axes) count amongst the rarest variants of shaft hole axes; moreover, examples of this type lack in most cases an archaeologically documented context. The RGZM in Mainz possesses one example of this hook-butted axe group with the findspot indicated as »Troy«. Exact typological parallels with a reliable documentation are not known so far, although one identical piece is said to come from the vicinity of Samsun on the Turkish Black Sea coast. Comparisons with related axes from the 3rd and 2nd millennium B.C. show that the distribution pattern of this type comprises mainly the northern part of Central Anatolia, thus shedding doubt on the findspot indicated for the axe from Mainz. Furthermore, typological details known from both the 3rd and 2nd millennium B.C. might prove that the example from Mainz could be understood as a »link« connecting Anatolian Early and Middle Bronze Age axe shapes. Item Open AccessThe annexation of Galatia reviewed(Koç Üniversitesi Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Araştırma Merkezi, 2019) Bennett, Julian; Bennett, JulianThis article reconsiders the accepted views on the annexation and ‘provincialisation’ of Galatia by expanding on the military-related factors involved. It is argued that the annexation helped provide Rome with the necessary resources, including manpower, to maintain Augustus’ ‘New Model’ Army as established between 30 and 25 BC, as well as providing land for the future discharge of legionary veterans. The achievements of the known governors of Galatia for 25 BC-AD 14 are reviewed also, noting how their senatorial status as pro-praetor or pro-consul had no bearing on the type of garrison they commanded. The process of establishing the Augustan coloniae ‘in Pisidia’ is then re-examined, as is the evidence for the character of Ancyra, Pessinus, and Tavium in the pre- and immediate post-annexation period. The data for the garrison of Augustan Galatia is then surveyed, concluding that the legiones V and VII took part in the annexation and probably remained there until AD 8, these legions being supported by auxiliary units that remained in the province after their departure. Finally, the evidence for the formation of the legio XXII Deiotariana is re-assessed, concluding it was indeed constituted under Augustus using the former Galatian Royal Army. Item Open AccessAnother glimpse at “Hattian” metalwork? – a group of Bronze Age metal items from Bekaroğlu Köyü, district of Çorum, Turkey(Institut Francais d'Etudes Anatoliennes, 2007) Zimmermann, T.; İpek, Ö. Item Open AccessArchaeology and the ancient near east: Methods and limits(Blackwell Publishing, 2005) Gates, Marie‐Henriette; Snell, D. C.