Browsing Theses - Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design by Title
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Item Open AccessThe 1912 Galata Bridge as a site of collective memory(Bilkent University, 2002) Şumnu, UmutThis work looks at the 1912 Galata Bridge as a case study and attempts to examine it as a dual construction in two senses: space and memory. Acknowledging that space and memory mutually construct each other, this thesis explains each term in general but also elucidates the relationship between perception and remembrance of space by reading the materiality of the 1912 Galata Bridge. In that respect, changing meanings attributed to space over time are analysed lead us to recognise two different ways of conceiving space named as 'spaceness' and 'placeness'. This dual existence is conductive to raising questions about perception of the 1912 Galata Bridge in two layers. Taken separately, its function of conveyance and the property of inhabitation lead us to read 'spaceness' and 'placeness' that also correspond to two ways of remembering it. Its 'spaceness' is perceived by the gaze and remembered through looking at its images, its 'placeness, on the other hand, is experienced by the body and recollected through reading texts that describe the actual engagement. Hence, 'spaceness' and 'placeness', gaze and body, image and text are correspondingly related with each other by the agency of the 1912 Galata Bridge as situated in collective memory. Item Open AccessAcoustical comfort evaluation in enclosed public spaces with a central atrium : a case study in food court of CEPA Shopping Center, Ankara(Bilkent University, 2009) Dökmeci, Papatya NurPhysical comfort requirements of users as thermal, visual, and acoustic comfort should be considered and studied in detail when designing and planning public spaces. The subjective auditory perception needs to be evaluated parallel with the objective acoustical incidences in a space. The food court area of CEPA Shopping Center with an atrium and a glass dome ceiling, in the capital city of Turkey, Ankara is chosen for the case. The aim of this study is to investigate acoustical parameters of the space via computer simulation program and examine the effect of architectural features of the space namely; central atrium, glass dome and the existing material applications. Considering the relationship between the users’ noise annoyance and the equivalent continuous sound pressure level (Leq) is also intended in this study. The research techniques are computer simulations, noise measurements and questionnaires. Acoustical parameters; reverberation time (RT), early decay time (EDT), sound transmission index (STI) and equivalent continuous sound pressure level (Leq) values are obtained by simulations and measurements. Questionnaires are used for understanding the noise annoyance and auditory perception of the users. The results show that the noise annoyance ratings correlate well with the Leq variances. The most dominantly perceived and the most annoying sound found to be correlated with the highest percentage for speech noise in the food court. Decay time (T30, EDT) results of the space that are derived from the ODEON 6.5 software are found to be very long as expected with a central atrium, glass dome ceiling and highly reflected material applications. In addition, the food court area is defined to be poor in terms of STI. High Leq values as well as long decay times that are present in the space are noted as factors increasing the noise annoyance of the users. Item Open AccessAcoustical performance analysis of Bilkent University amphitheater "Odeon"(Bilkent University, 2004) Sü, ZühreThe aim of this study is analyzing the acoustical quality of Bilkent University Amphitheater ODEON by means of assessing the fundamental acoustical parameters for both speech and music. Defining the problems, specifying the causes of the problems and providing a foundation for the ongoing suggestions are within the frame of the analysis. The parameters such as reverberation time, early decay time, clarity, definition, lateral fraction, sound pressure level and sound transmission index are calculated by the computer simulation technique for their assessment to be carried out. Initially, the results of the simulation software are compared with the previous real-size measurements of Bilkent ODEON for the unoccupied condition of the amphitheater, in order to ensure the accuracy of the software. Proving to be a valid tool, the software namely ODEON Room Acoustics Program, is used in the calculations for the occupied condition of the amphitheater as a basis of the study. The results are evaluated from the acoustical design standpoint of a multipurpose hall, which are followed by the suggestions for the improvement of the existing acoustical performance of the amphitheater. Finally, the suggestions are supported through the simulation results of the new hall that is acoustically renovated. Item Open AccessAdaptive re-use of spaces as art galleries: the case of Beyoğlu, İstanbul(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Erkoç, GöksuThis study aimed to understand adaptive re-use of spaces as art galleries with a focus on gallery owners’ perspectives as well as properties of the spaces. Accordingly, first, criteria were determined by combining art gallery characteristics: spatial visibility, transparency, flexibility, and adaptive re-use characteristics, which are architectural, locational, financial and market characteristics within the context of Beyoğlu. Afterwards, decision making of owners and their prioritizations in the selection of district and the space was explored by questionnaire. This was followed by documentation of the galleries as observation with respect to the determined characteristics. The results show that spatial characteristics of the space and conversion process were less concerned for owners. Therefore, its urban context and presence have much greater importance than its spatial characteristics. Item Open AccessThe analysis and design of urban near-home environments according to psycho-social needs and behavior of human beings(Bilkent University, 1996) Serpil, BurçakIn this study, the design of urban near-home environments is examined considering the social and psychological needs of human beings as well as human spatial behavior. After an introduction to the concepts such as environment, near-home environments, human-environment interaction, human basic needs and human spatial behavior; the basic psycho-social needs of human beings are classified as safety, identity, social contact and privacy. These needs are analysed in relation to the design of urban near-home environments. Within this framework, behavioral concepts like territorility, personalisation, crowding are also considered. Furthermore, a research is conducted in Ankara, in two middle-density apartments with near-home environment of different design features. This research explores and compares the influences of these environments--which differ within themselves in terms of design characteristics--on the satisfaction of residents' psycho-social needs. Design suggestions are proposed at the end of the analysis of the findings of the research. Item Open AccessAn analysis of basic design students' intuitive and analytic attitudes in colour decisions(Bilkent University, 2003) Akbay, SaadetColour can be defined as a subjective preference, an experience and an intuitive sense, or as a theory and a science. Design education regards colour as a scientific theory by means of reasoning. The design students’ colour decisions, values, and intuitive attitudes are aimed to be developed and cultivated by colour education in basic design, and supported and equipped by knowledge towards analytical attitudes. Thus, the major concern of this study is to analyze the progression of basic design students’ intuitive and analytical attitudes in colour decisions by means of aesthetic values in case of Interior Architecture and Environmental Department of Bilkent University. The results of the research show that during the progression of colour education in basic design, the students’ colour decision tendencies towards subjective and intuitive attitudes have a decrease and their tendencies towards knowledge-based and analytical attitudes have an increase. Item Open AccessAnalysis of daily activities of young people with cerebral palsy in their home environments(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Tanrıverdi, PınarIn this study the difficulties experienced by young people with cerebral palsy, their level of dependence and related emotions and the level of importance they attach to daily living activities in the home environments are examined and compared. The main purpose of this study is to analyze which activities are most difficult for young people with cerebral palsy and the relationship between difficulties in activities and body parts. Also, it aims to examine during which activities young people with cerebral palsy are more dependent on others and how they feel as a result of this dependence. Furthermore, it also aims to compare the importance level that young people with cerebral palsy give to the activities. The survey phase is conducted with 31 young people with cerebral palsy aged 15-24. Afterwards, separate interviews are held with six participants who volunteered to take part in this phase, who also answered the survey questions. Survey results reveal that young people with cerebral palsy experience varied levels of difficulty in different activities. Also, there is a relationship between difficulties in doing activities and difficulties they experience in different parts of their bodies. Moreover, difficulties in doing daily activities increased their dependence and different emotions occur because of this. Finally, the survey results show that the importance level that young people with cerebral palsy give to the daily activities shift. Interview results reveal that the reasons why young people with cerebral palsy cannot do or not do activities differ and these reasons are explained. Also, the emotions that occur because of being dependent on others and the adaptations that they made or want to make in their homes are discussed. Item Open AccessAn analysis of preference formation in introductory design education(Bilkent University, 2001) Koyuncugil, Hüseyin TolgaBasic design education is an important experience for design students, since they are expected to construct a basis for their further education and future career, and there are several objectives in basic design education to construct this basis. Moreover, during basic design education students begin to form their preferences on visual aspects of design which will determine the quality of design product. The methodology of basic design education is based on social interaction. However, social choice theory assumes that social interaction between people will result with similar preferences of individuals, as opposite to the objectives of basic design education. Thus, the main concern of this study is to investigate probable effects of social interaction in basic design studio on preference formation of basic design students in the case of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design department of Bilkent University to open up a discussion on the relevancy of basic methodology to its objectives, and the validity of the common consents of basic design education. The results of the research show that students form similar sets of preferences because of their social interaction with instructors and their perceptual tendencies, and this manifests a situation contradicted with the objective of basic design education. Item Open AccessAn analytical re-assessment of introductory design in architectural education(Bilkent University, 1998) Farivarsadri, Guita AviralIntroductory design, as the initial step in architectural education, is of crucial importance. In this course student are supposed to acquire values, knowledge and skills which create a basis for further levels of their professional education. A holistic, human-centered approach to introductory design education aims at providing students with an insight into the context and complexities of architectural design, and their future responsibilities in the very beginning of architectural education. This thesis creates a framework for the assessment of such an introductory design education. A study of different dimensions of this education and a critical analysis of current approaches, creates a basis for proposing a framework for a holistic, human-centered approach. In this critical analysis, the objectives, objects, methods and management of introductory design education are considered in relation to its ideological, sociological, epistemological and pedagogical dimensions. Item Open AccessAn analytical tool for the evaluation of 'open building' projects(Bilkent University, 2002) Tandoğan, ElifHousing, being one of the most important concerns of architecture, has always been an unsolved problem for researchers, especially for architects. This judgement is also valid for the Turkish case. In this work, ‘Open Building’ approach, based on the main principles of leveling, adaptability, variety, and sustainability is proposed as a solution to the quality and quantity related housing problems in Turkey. Examining the principles, strategies, and methods employed in the applied ‘Open Building’ projects, an analytical tool is developed to encourage the application of these principles, strategies, and methods in the Turkish context. The two-staged analytical tool evaluates the previous ‘Open Building’ projects’ decisions according to their success in satisfying the ‘Open Building’ issues, and the applicability of these decisions to the housing projects in Turkey, in terms of legal and technical restrictions. Aimed at guiding the designers, who are to apply the ‘Open Building’ principles to the housing initiatives in Turkey, the analytical tool firstly helps to select the best ‘Open Building’ applications, and then evaluates them within the legal and technical framework to determine their suitability to Turkey. In this thesis, the two projects, Next 21 Experimental Housing in Japan, and Voorburg Renovation Project in the Netherlands are evaluated according to the developed tool to demonstrate its operation and benefits in the design phase of the housing process. As a result of this study, it is concluded that ‘Open Building’ principles can be applicable to the Turkish context, and the developed tool would be helpful in implementing these principles to the housing designs. Item Open AccessAnalyzing occupants’ control over lighting systems in office settings using virtual environments(Bilkent University, 2020-12) Mahmoudzadeh, ParisaThis study systematically analyzed the impact of having personal control over lighting system on occupants’ lighting choices, lighting satisfaction, and task performance in a virtual office setting. For this purpose, 30 participants took part in a 3-phased experiment with immersive virtual environments (IVEs). Each phase of the experiment offered a different degree of control over the lighting. Personality traits were also studied in relation to lighting choices. Finally, a technology acceptance model (TAM) was employed to further investigate the participants’ attitude towards the virtual reality (VR) technology. The findings of this study showed that using an interactive lighting system, which was as satisfactory compared to a conventional lighting system, encouraged the participants to use more natural light. The interactive lighting system imposed the same amount of cognitive load on the participants for performing a reading task as a conventional lighting system, which was significantly lower than their cognitive load scores for performing the task with automated lighting system. Personality analyses demonstrated that the participants with a high score on openness had a wide range of lighting choices either with conventional or with interactive lighting. This study’s results differed from the previous studies by highlighting that the participants considered VR as a better fit to an enjoyable experience rather than as a useful tool for performing serious tasks. Item Open AccessAnalyzing student satisfaction with blended learning in a studio and non-studio course(Bilkent University, 2017-04) Aksoydan, HazalThe aim of this thesis is to explore whether student satisfaction with blended learning (BL) differs according to studio and non-studio courses. Moreover, this thesis also aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of BL environment on overall course satisfaction and student performance. The thesis is conducted at Bilkent University in Ankara, during 2015-2016 Spring and Fall Semester. Third and fourth year Interior Architecture and Environmental Design students, who are taking a studio and a non-studio course within a blended learning environment, are participated in the study. A structured survey was conducted under 4 different factors of BL: (1) interaction, (2) instruction, (3) instructor, and (4) technology. Findings were obtained by calculating exploratory factor analyses for each course type. Later, the developed factors were analyzed by employing Structural Equation Modeling to test direct and indirect effects among performance, course satisfaction and overall course satisfaction. The findings indicated that the direct effect of BL satisfaction and overall course satisfaction on student performance is statistically significant in both studio courses and non-studio courses Item Open AccessAnalyzing the effects of different critique techniques on the success of interior architecture students(Bilkent University, 2015) Günday, Çiler GözdeThis study presents the design education literature in terms of design studio learning by reviewing teaching styles, learning models and learning process. Additionally, the term critique is defined as a backbone of the learning process in design studios. The study focuses on three-critique techniques that are desk critiques, pin-up critiques and group critiques. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of different critique techniques on the success of interior architecture students. It also explores correlations between student attitudes toward each critique technique and its contribution to the design process. A research was conducted with 3rd year interior architecture students in 2014- 2015 Fall Semester at Bilkent University. It was found that there was not a statistically significant relationship between student attitudes towards group, pin-up critiques and their final performance scores; however, there is a statistically significant relationship between student attitude toward desk critique and their final performance scores. Furthermore, the contribution of a critique technique to design process is highly correlated with student preference for this critique technique. Item Open AccessAnalyzing the effects of thermal comfort and indoor air quality in design studios and classrooms on student performance(Bilkent University, 2017-07) Ranjbar, AliThe present study aims to evaluate the effects of the different ventilation modes on thermal comfort and indoor air quality in design studios and classrooms. It also investigates its associations with student performance. For this purpose, experimental and subjective measurements are used in both studio and classroom, in Interior Architecture and Environmental Design Department at Bilkent University, Ankara. CO2 concentration, indoor temperature and humidity values are collected in both winter and summer season under the three modes of ventilation: 1) without opening door and windows mode setting; (2) natural ventilation mode and (3) the mechanical TROX school-air unit mode. The thermal comfort and IAQ was investigated through CO2 concentration and temperature and humidity in these three different ventilation modes. Under these three modes in both seasons, student performance is assessed based on concentration and attention test results. Both experimental and subjective results have shown that the mechanical TROX school-air unit mode is the most satisfactory indoor environment in terms of standards, where the highest grade of students’ concentration and attention are obtained. Item Open AccessAn approach based on sound classification to predict soundscape perception through machine learning(Bilkent University, 2021-06) Acun, VolkanA growing amount of literature and a series of ISO standards focus on concept, data collection, and data analysis methods of soundscapes. Yet, this field of research still lacks predictive models. We hypothesize that machine learning methods can be used to develop a predictive model by identifying the audio content of soundscapes and correlating it with individuals’ perceived affective response to the soundscapes. Therefore, this research aims to identify machine learning-based sound classification methods for analyzing the audio content of soundscapes and using its output in a second model for evaluating the association between the audio content and perception of the soundscape. We focused on museum soundscapes to conduct our research. The methodology of this thesis is divided into two parts. For the first part, we used Convolutional Neural Networks for classifying the audio content of the soundscape. Due to their limitations, we used a different approach rather than the typical environmental sound classification methods. We used musical instruments for the training dataset and optimized the neural network for this type of task. The convolutional neural network classified the audio content of the soundscapes based on their similarities to the musical instruments of the dataset. We conducted an online soundscape perception survey to measure participants' affective responses to different museum soundscapes for the second part. To predict individuals’ perception of soundscapes, we developed a feedforward neural network model. This model used the audio content output from the sound classification model and the soundscape survey data to predict the perceived affective quality of soundscapes. We concluded the thesis by conducting statistical analyses to explore the association between the variable used in the predictive model. Item Open AccessAn approach to integrate lighting concepts into interior design studios : a constructivist educational framework(Bilkent University, 2006) Tural, MehmedalpOriginating from the inadequacy of teaching and learning frameworks in interior design education and the gap between design studio and supportive courses in design curricula, this study suggests a pedagogical approach for design studios to overcome the disentanglement in interior design education. Within this context, the study introduces a ‘constructivist framework’ as the foundation of an instructional method to recall knowledge from lighting-related courses into the design studio. Constructivism, taking knowledge as temporary, developmental, nonobjective, internally constructed, and socially and culturally mediated, is discussed as one of the most suitable epistemological stances for design education with regards to its problem-based studio education. In order to examine the appropriateness of the suggested approach for integration, students in one of the two design studio sections were given lighting design exercises prepared with reference to constructivist premises, and received constructive feedbacks for their lighting design proposals during the semester, while the other section had no extra exercises and critiques on lighting design. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using quantitative data analysis techniques. The findings demonstrated that incorporation of the constructivist instructional strategies improved the success of students in studio projects in terms of lighting design requirements. Additionally, final jury sessions were recorded and analyzed in relation to the discussions and questions about lighting design dimensions of the projects, with regards to the nature and content of the questions and faculty-related barriers against the integration of lighting concepts. The study is considered also significant for the potential applicability of the proposed educational approach to integrate the other design knowledge areas into design studio for a more comprehensive interior design education. Item Open AccessArchitecture as a technology of framing experience : camera obscura, camp, and the confessional(Bilkent University, 2009) Uysal, V. ŞafakThroughout architectural history, the problematic of experience is mostly addressed within the confines of either deterministic or phenomenological models. Bound as they are, however, to the transcendental coordinates of a founding structure and a selfcontained subject figure, neither one of these models seems to provide us with the necessary tools of engaging with the transgressive aspects of experience in general or architectural experience in particular. Beginning with the problem of how architecture can be said to effect the experience of its subjects, the dissertation aims at gaining an insight into the constructive capacity and functioning of architecture as a technology of framing, whereby the subject's relation to environment, to other subjects, and to oneself can be addressed. In order to do this, the author first traces the constituent elements of a so-called “science of experience,” an experiontology, throughout the historiographic work of Michel Foucault. Developing a composite framework as such, which facilitates a historico-critical analysis of the work of architecture in relation to the formation and transformation of experiential structures, the author thus identifies the logic of experience as a process of desubjectification at work in and through the triplicate domains of epistemology, politics, and ethics. Once the terms of this logic are tested and further enhanced through the analyses of three environmental formations – namely, the camera obscura, the camp, and the confessional – what is arrived at is a veritable relationship between architecture and experience in the neighborhood of the categories of error, resistance, and interiority of the self. The result is a recognition of architecture as an art of organization of bodily encounters, in accordance with which the architectural frame becomes the condition of possibility for the production and reproduction of novel corporealities. Item Open AccessAsessing usability of virtual reality for basic design education(Bilkent University, 2018-07) Özgen, Dilay SedaBeing an emerging technology, virtual reality is used in a wide range of fields such as medicine, gaming, psychology and sociology. There are also wide range of researches that compare traditional and digital methodologies in design education. However, in design education, there is a limited research into the implementation of virtual reality (VR). Therefore, this thesis focuses on the usability of virtual reality in design education, especially during problem-solving activity in basic design education. This thesis presents the basic design education literature in terms of digital approaches, virtual reality technologies, usability criteria and also technology acceptance model. In order to to analyze the usability of virtual reality in basic design education, an experimental study conducted with 20 first year interior architecture and architecture students in the Spring semester of 2017-2018 academic year, at Bilkent University. It is found that there is a statistically significant difference in terms of intention to use and perceived enjoyment between the VR group and paper-based group. Moreover, there is also a statistically significant effectiveness difference between of VR and paper-based environment. As a result of that, it is stated that VR can support problem-solving activity of basic design education. Item Open AccessAudio-visual perception of outpatients in an oncology polyclinic(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Uğurlu, M. ZeynepThis study aims to analyze the effects of auditory and visual perception in a hospital environment to provide comfort for the outpatients. The research focused on the waiting area of an oncology polyclinic. The binaural audio recordings and 360° photographs were taken from three different locations (reception area, courtyard area, and corridor) on the site. Audio recordings were visualized through signal processing, and the photographs were evaluated through image analysis via MATLAB to show the auditory and visual differences among the locations. These three locations differed from each other in their auditory and visual environments. Regarding the hospital auditory environment, sound sources are human activity-related and technology-based. The reception area has an indoor opening, the courtyard area has indoor and outdoor openings, and the corridor area has none. Voluntary oncology outpatients in three locations in the polyclinic were given questionnaires (n=66) and interviewed (n=20). Questionnaires were analyzed in IBM SPSS Statistics, and interviews were analyzed with the Grounded Theory method in ATLAS.ti software. Equivalent Continuous A-Weighted Sound Level (LAeq) measurements were taken within the interview hours and at one-hour intervals from three locations. The questionnaire revealed that the courtyard area is calmer and more pleasant than the other areas. The conceptual framework created with semi-structured interviews showed how the auditory and visual environments affect the outpatients' perception. The conceptual framework revealed audio-visual perceptions in the hospital environment with the existing condition and outpatients' preferences and proposed suggestions for a hospital environment. Item Open AccessBetween being and becoming : identity, question of foreignness and the case of the Turkish house(Bilkent University, 2012) Şumnu, UmutHow were those narratives telling us about the Turkish House shaped? How did they come to contribute to the formation of our understanding of the history [and theory] of modern Turkish architecture? And respectively, how did they dominate our conception of modern Turkish identity? In light of these questions, this dissertation looks at the historiography of what is the so-called Turkish House as it emerged from Ottoman obscurity into the consciousness of the new Republic of Turkey, between the closing decades of the 19th century and the end of the 1930s. And, following the arguments of post-structuralist (architectural) theorists and the texts of the architectural historians in Turkey, this study intends to open up an ontological discussion around modern Turkish identity, and respectively around the Turkish House, as its architectural translation. Through looking at culturally and politically thick textual descriptions in journals, books, novels and stories; and visual representations in pictures, drawings, and architectural projects of the era, this study first of all underlines that idea/image of the Turkish House appeared and was formed as a response to the question of „foreignness‟. Then, from a de-constructive perspective, in order to challenge the term‟s de-facto usage, this study most productively brings the „foreign‟ voices of several architects - like Ernst Egli, Bruno Taut and Seyfi Arkan, who were practicing their designs in the late 1930s in Turkey- to the discussion, to reveal a more „dialogical‟, more „contingent‟, and more „pluralized‟ conception of the term modern, and to trace an alternative understanding of the Turkish House. Although in cultural and historical terms, the designs of these architects do not fit into the typological and stylistic principles of traditional dwelling forms, the works, which concentrates on not the „essential modern‟ character of the Turkish House, but the „inevitably national‟ character of modern house help us to position a more experimental, more spatial and more universalistic understanding of the Turkish House, rather than a stylistic, decorative, romantic, and culturally relativist one. In other words, through works, one can find a chance to shift from the morphological perspective of modern (and, of national); to show that the terms modern and national cannot be reduced into fixed architectural definitions; to portray a modern-national identity that is slippery, mobile, multiple, heterogeneous, incomplete, and subject to change; and more importantly, to surface an understanding of Turkish House not as a „thingness‟, as a being, but as a „movement‟, as a „becoming‟.