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Item Open AccessThe influence of money and the rate of interest on the rate of inflation in a financially repressed economy: The case of Turkey(1987) Togan, SübideyThis study takes as its task the explanation of movements in the rate of inflation. It seeks to discover the dynamic process by which monetary expansion and changes in the rate of interest have their effects upon the level of prices. Item Open AccessStructural adjustment and trade in Turkey: Investigating the alternatives "beyond export-led growth"(Elsevier, 1989) Yeldan, A. E.The article searches for a viable alternative for Turkey's economy to resolve its current confrontation with the dilemma of stabilization and growth. With the aid of a dynamic, computable, general equilibrium model, it is argued that an integrated, industrialization strategy that combines a domestic-demand-based, wage-goods-oriented public investment program with a selective export-promotion scheme promises to be the most appropriate one serving Turkey's long-term industrialization interests. The model results further emphasize the pressing need for the revitalization of the domestic demand and the importance of the agricultural productivity growth in promoting Turkey's overall objectives of industrialization, income equity, and foreign trade over the Fifth and Sixth Plan periods. © 1989. Item Open AccessSpectral analysis of the relationship between energy consumption, employment, and business cycles(1990) Erol, U.; Yu, E. S. H.Through the use of cross-spectral techniques, we identify the dependence of U.S. industrial energy consumption on the industrial production index and total non-farm employment over business cycles. In particular, total energy consumption, mainly due to its industrial component, responds to changes in the production index. It is found that the industrial demand for energy is fairly sensitive to business cycles, while the household energy consumption and transportationsector energy consumption are not significantly affected by the expansion and contraction phases of the economy. In addition, there is a significant degree of correlation between the total non-farm employment and energy consumption over the business cycle frequencies. The evidence indicates a simultaneous response of employment and energy consumption to business cycle movements of the production index and suggests neutrality between energy and labor employment. © 1990. Item Open AccessBehavior of systematic risk in a regionally integrated model for stock prices(1992) Akdogan, H.Regional (EC) capital market integration is examined by monitoring the behavior of systematic risk vis-à-vis a single index time series return generating model. Evidence supports that the EC markets for securities have gradually become more integrated and that the capital controls are important sources of segmentation. Item Open AccessWomen in banking: A comparative perspective on the integration myth(1992) Culpan, O.; Akdag, F.; Cindogvlu, D.This article reports on the results of two similar surveys conducted with professional women bankers, one in the USA and the other in Turkey, to explore socio-economic backgrounds, attitudes towards work, and the nature of the support they receive as such. It also describes the views of women bankers in both cultures with reference to sexual discrimination in the workplace and also their varying levels of job satisfaction and frustration. In the last decade, the number of professional women has increased substantially in the workplace. In particular, women have made significant advancements in the banking industry[l], where 190 of them serve as Presidents at the 14,000 banks in the US, and where the number of them serving as executives has tripled over the last decade. A similar trend also exists in Turkey. The number of women bankers has increased since 1971, and these women have high potential for promotion to executive positions. Because banks are major employers of women, women bankers represent an important case study. Studying women and their professional advancement in banks will provide guidelines for other women professionals striving to achieve professional advancement. A comparative study will help to expand the boundaries of knowledgeability about the advancement of professional women bankers to an international level. Item Open AccessMacroeconometric modelling and Pakistan's economy. A vector autoregression approach(1992) Chishti, S. U.; Hasan, M. A.; Mahmud, S. F.Recent applications of the Vector Autoregression (VAR) technique pioneered by Sims, Litterman and Doan has become popular in macroeconomic modelling, particularly when knowledge about 'true' structural relations is absent. This study represents the first attempt to apply such a technique to Pakistani data for ten key macroeconomic variables. Unlike some of the earlier studies on Pakistan's economy our empirical results are intuitive and consistent with the predictions of the standard new neoclassical model. More importantly, based on these results, perhaps, one may also shed light on some of the dominant recurring macroeconomic issues of Pakistan's economy. © 1992. Item Open AccessIs money an omitted variable in the production function? some further results(Physica-Verlag, 1993) Hasan, M. A.; Mahmud, S. F.In recent years, numerous studies have emphasized the role of real balances in the production function in terms of money being useful: as an intermediate good; as liquid reserves for investment; and also serving as a link between aggregate supply and the nominal interest rate. In this paper we report new Canadian empirical evidence regarding the important role of money in the production process of aggregate manufacturing industries based on a flexible translog cost function approach. In general, our results support the hypothesis that money is an important factor in the production function and that there are potential supply side effects of a change in the interest rate. © 1993 Physica-Verlag. Item Open AccessNaval security in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean: a Turkish view(Routledge, 1993) Karaosmanoglu, A. L. Item Open AccessOpportunism and the dynamics of the incomplete contracts(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc., 1993) Bac, M.This paper studies a buyer-seller relationship where "quality" is not contractible but is affected by effort and the seller's privately known innate value. The seller's cost of effort is also private knowledge. Assuming constant outside opportunities, we show that more than two contracts is redundant, the sequence of contracts exhibits increasing prices and durations, and commit- ments for prices beyond the actual contract invite opportunism, not effort. The seller uses effort during the screening process, which improves noncontract- ible quality. As a result, type-related information may have negative value when contracts are incomplete. Item Open AccessThe Black Sea economic co-operation project: a regional challenge to European integration(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 1993) Gençkaya, Ö. F. Item Open AccessState elites and democratic political culture in Turkey(Lynne Rienner Publications, 1993) Özbudun, Ergun; Diamond, L. Item Open AccessThe 'Young Tatar' movement in the Crimea: 1905-1909(EHESS, 1993) Kırımlı, H.During the 1905 revolution, a nationalist-revolutionary movement emerged among the Crimean Tatar intelligentsia, whose members were called the "Young Tatars." Strongly influenced by the Russian revolutionaries, the Young Tatars engaged in a political and social struggle involving a network of underground cells, as well as legal publications and enlightenment activities. They introduced the political concept of "fatherland," defined by the Crimea, thereby providing a territorial basis for national identity. While endorsing broader Turkic and Islamic allegiances, they concentrated primarily on the Crimean Tatar people as the starting point of their national identity. Item Open AccessDie wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der Türkei von 1923 bis 1980(Suedosteuropa-Gesellschaft e.V., 1993) Yilmaz, B. Item Open AccessDie neue regionale Rolle der Türkei(Oberursel/Taunus, 1993) Karaosmanoğlu, A. L.Die Türkei gehort zu den Landem, die vom Ende des Kalten Krieges und den damit einhergehenden geopolitischen Veranderungen in Eurasien am starksten betroffen sind. Sie befindet sich an zentraler Position in einem bunten intemationalen Umfeld, das sich von der Adria bis zum Westen Chinas erstreckt. Die meisten der in dieser Region lebenden Volker sind ethnisch mit der Tiirkei verbunden und zahlen Millionen von Menschen. Dies neue Umfeld hat der tilrkischen AuBenpolitik neue Perspektiven gegeben. Die vormalige Politik des ,,niedrigen Profits", gekennzeichnet durch Nichteinmischung in regionale Konflikte, ist unter den neuen Bedingungen zunehmend irrelevant geworden. Die Erwartungen regionaler Staaten an die Tiirkei einerseits und die neu eroffneten Moglichkeiten andererseits haben Ankara dazu veranla8t, eine aktive Rolle auf dem Balkan, in der Schwarzmeer-Region, im Kaukasus, in Zentralasien und im Nahen Osten zu iibemehmen. Item Open AccessHow to assess the significance of export incentives: an application to Turkey(Springer, 1993-12) Togan, S.This paper analyzes the changes in the structure of export incentives in Turkey from 1983 to 1990. It shows that during the 1980s the level of the economy-wide subsidy rates and that of the inter-industry dispersion of incentives have substantially been lowered. Using the estimates of the effective subsidy figures it is shown that the Turkish export- and import-competing industries have benefited from the export incentives more than the other sectors. Finally, it is emphasized that the system of export incentives is too complicated and is therefore blurring the transparency of the incentive system. Item Open AccessTurkey's new role in international politics(W. Bertelsmann Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 1994) Yilmaz, B.The disintegration of the Soviet Union seemed to create new opportunities for Turkey. Independent countries emerged in the southern part of the former USSR which were receptive to the reactivation of bonds with Turkey rooted in their Muslim cultural tradition and, to a great extent, their affiliation to the family of Turk peoples. Their impression was that Ankara he/,d the key to sociopolitical modernisation and economic prosperity. As Bahri Yilmaz, Professor at the Bilkent University in Ankara, exp/aim, the meam at Turkey's disposal were ove"ated by far. The reduction . of the Turkish influence this implied was compounded by growing Russian efforts to regain lost political and military te"ain in Tramcaucasia and Central Asia. Comequently, Ankara again finds itself primarily relying on the links with NA TO and Western Europe which existed up until the upheavals which reshaped the international political landscape between 1989 and 1991. Bahri Yilmaz works on the assumption that Turkey's traditional orientation towards the political values of the West remains unbroken. Item Open AccessPolymorphism of spermatocytic seminoma. A morphometric study(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 1994) Frasik, W.; Okoń, K.; Sokołowski, A.Spermatocytic seminoma (SS) is one of the testicular tumours. It is distinguished from other germ cell neoplasms by a special type of polymorphism. The aim of the present study was a morphometric analysis (Microplane II image system) of this phenomenon. In histological slides we measured the profile area of nuclei in about 500 adjacent cells. The basic material consisted of 12 cases (c.) of infiltrating SS, and the comparative material included intracanalicular SS (IcSS-1c.), other types of seminoma - typical (TS-2 c.), anaplastic (AS-2c.) and spermatogenesis in an elderly man (Sg-1 c.). We carried out a statistical analysis of the populations of cellular nuclei: we determined nuclear population similarities and differences, as well as their relation to various types of standard distributions such as Erlang, gamma, lognormal, normal and Weibull. Part of the SS histograms including IcSS showed similarities. The mean value of the profile area range from 32.5 to 56.5 μm2. In other types of seminomas this value was much higher. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test showed differences between the compared nuclear populations. Lack of the differences was found only between certain SS (including IcSS). The results of comparisons of the populations studied with standard distributions showed that the analysed nuclear populations can be successfully described by more than one theoretical distribution. However, among the spermatocytic seminomas analysed, in contrast to TS and AS, we found distributions not corresponding to any of the standard distributions. The results of our findings argue also against the occurrence of haploid nuclei in SS cells. In slides from SS there were forms much larger than the nuclei of spermatocytes in Sg. In combination with the data concerning ploidy of the neoplasm we postulate that SS nuclear polymorphism is dependent both on maturation and atypia. Item Open AccessThe impact of migration on gender roles: findings of field research in Turkey(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 1994) Kadioglu, A.