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Item Open AccessMarketing research in Saudi Arabia(Emerald, 1988) Tuncalp, SeçilThe marketing research scene in Saudi Arabia is investigated, where a number of environmental factors make marketing research a formidable undertaking. Cultural factors, such as language, religion and social etiquettes, hamper questionnaire surveys. As sampling frames and accurate maps are not available, probabilistic samples are difficult to construct. The private nature of the local people hinders data collection. In addition, the number of public and private sector organisations with research capabilities are few. Some secondary sources of information in the public sector exist. In light of recent interest in information, the future prospects for a wider diffusion of marketing research in Saudi Arabia look bright. Item Open AccessScheduling independent jobs with stochastic processing times and a common due date on parallel and identical machines(Baltzer Science Publishers, Baarn/Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989) Erel, E.; Sarin, S.C.We propose a heuristic procedure that constructs a schedule for N jobs with stochastic processing times and a common due date on M parallel, identical machines. The criterion is the minimization of the total expected incompletion cost. A worst-case analysis for the ratio of the heuristic and optimal solutions is presented and a bound on the ratio is derived. The experimental results presented indicate that the heuristic procedure generates almost optimal solutions. © 1989 J.C. Baltzer A.G. Scientific Publishing Company. Item Open AccessThe demand for energy in the large-scale manufacturing sector of Pakistan(Elsevier BV, 1990) Mahmud, Fakhre; Chishti, S.The extent of interfuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, in the large-scale manufacturing sector of Pakistan has been examined. The model has been estimated in two stages. In the first stage input demand for various energy components is estimated and hence an aggregate Divisia index is constructed. In the second stage this index is used as an instrument to estimate aggregate input demand for capital, labour and energy along with their price and substitution elasticities. It seems that there is little interfuel substitution. The results also show that energy and labour are substitutes while energy and capital are complement. Item Open AccessDevelopment of cost model for the single-model stochastic assembly line balancing problem(1990) Sarin, S. C.; Erel, ErdalIn this paper we develop a cost model for the single-model stochastic assembly line balancing problem for the objective of minimizing the total labour cost (dicated by the number of stations on the line) and the expected incompletion cost arising from tasks not completed within the prescribed cycle time. Its use is demonstrated in a dynamic programming procedure which is implemented using a bounding strategy to curtail storage and computational requirements. The solutions obtained are compared with those obtained using the procedure of Kottas and Lau (1973, 1981). Item Open AccessSequencing jobs on a single machine with a common due date and stochastic processing times(1991) Sarin, S. C.; Erel, Erdal; Steiner, G.This paper presents a procedure for sequencing jobs on a single machine with jobs having a common due date and stochastic processing times. The performance measure to be optimized is the expected incompletion cost. Job processing times are normally distributed random variables, and the variances of the processing times are proportional to their means. The optimal sequences are shown to have a W- or V-shape. Based on this property computationally attractive solution methods are presented. Item Open AccessThe effects of feedback and training on the performance of probability forecasters(Elsevier, 1992) Benson, P. G.; Önkal D.An experiment examined the effects of outcome feedback and three types of performance feedback-calibration feedback, resolution feedback, and covariance feedback - on various aspects of the performance of probability forecasters. Subjects made 55 forecasts in each of four sessions, receiving feedback prior to making their forecasts in each of the last three sessions. The provision of calibration feedback was effective in improving both the calibration and overforecasting of probability forecasters, but the improvement was not gradual; it occurred in one step, between the second and third sessions. Simple outcome feedback had very little effect on forecasting performance. Neither resolution nor covariance feedback affected forecasters' performances much differently than outcome feedback. However, unlike outcome feedback, the provision of performance feedback caused subjects to manage their use of the probability scale. Subjects switched from two-digit probabilities to one-digit probabilities, and those receiving calibration and resolution feedback also reduced the number of different probabilities they used. © 1992. Item Open AccessThe effect of continuous price change in the EOQ(Pergamon Press, 1992) Erel, E.The sensitivity of the basic economic order quantity (EOQ) model to continuous purchase price changes is explored. The phenomenon of continuous price changes exists in several countries and it is not likely to improve. The paper shows that using the conventional EOQ can be quite costly and far from optimal, if the holding cost rate is determined erroneously by ignoring the price change. Item Open AccessManagement information systems in family planning: experience of a developing country(Federation Internationale d'Information et de Documentation, 1992) Onkal, Dilek; Erel, Erdal Item Open AccessBureaucracy and bribery : a conceptual framework(1992) Berkman, ü.Public bureaucracies carry a potential for bribery. This paper tries to identify and examine the factors affecting the potential or the probability of bribery. It is argued that the specific nature and the probability of bribery depend on the persons involved, the corrupt act in question, the organization in which the event takes place and finally the socio-cultural, economic and political environment within which the organization operates. © 1992, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved. Item Open AccessTracking the development of the Emery-Trist systems paradigm (ETSP)(Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers, 1992) Babüroğlu, O. N.This paper is written to accomplish two objectives: first, to introduce the Emery-Trist systems paradigm to the critical systems thinking, a largely neglected and under-utilized paradigm; second using a critical systems thinking framework, to provide a rational justification in an attempt to track the developments in the ETSP so that an extended heuristic map is offered to the scholars interested in the Emery-Trist systems paradigm. Four tracks within ETSP are identified and analyzed to produce a liberation theme that has not previously been articulated. The liberation theme imminent in all four tracks of the paradigm development denotes the value and the promise of the ETSP to the critical systems thinking community as well as to other systems thinkers. © 1992 Plenum Publishing Corporation. Item Open AccessThe positive and negative effects of marketing on socioeconomic development: the Turkish case(Springer New York LLC, 1992) Ger, G.Some observations and thoughts about domestic and international interactions between marketing and economic, sociopolitical, and cultural factors are presented using Turkish examples. These interactions are discussed in terms of satisfaction of the needs (having, actualization, and social) of the three parties that seem to be differentially influenced by marketing: over- and underprivileged individuals, the society, and the businesses. In particular, the attention is drown to the fact that whereas marketing has had mainly positive effects on the country's privileged consumers, the poor consumers have seldom benefitted. The author suggests a number of actions, to be taken by business and non-business organizations, that could increase the need satisfaction of each of the parties. © 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Item Open AccessAn evaluation of the reliability of probability judgments across response modes and over time(Wiley, 1993) Whitcomb, K. M.; Önkal D.; Benson, P. G.; Curley, S. P.Despite the importance of probability assessment methods in behavioral decision theory and decision analysis, little attention has been directed at evaluating their reliability and validity. In fact, no comprehensive study of reliability has been undertaken. Since reliability is a necessary condition for validity, this oversight is significant. The present study was motivated by that oversight. We investigated the reliability of probability measures derived from three response modes; numerical probabilities, pie diagrams, and odds. Unlike previous studies, the experiment was designed to distinguish systematic deviations in probability judgments, such as those due to experience or practice, from random deviations. It was found that subjects assessed probabilities reliably lor all three assessment methods regardless of the reliability measures employed. However, a small but statistically significant decrease over time in the magnitudes of assessed probabilities was observed. This effect was linked to a decrease in subjects' overconfidence during the course of the experiment. Item Open AccessThe automobile market in Saudi Arabia: implications for export marketing planning(Emerald Publishing, 1993) Tuncalp, S.Provides an analysis of the marketing environment for car exporters to Saudi Arabia. Despite the fact that the Kingdom presents lucrative opportunities for car exporters, Saudi Arabia was the second largest market in the world for Japanese car exporters during the early 1980s. Contends that a number of unique social, economic, environmental, demographic and religious factors make this market highly complex. Success hinges on a clear understanding of the market conditions and on emulating some of the innovative marketing tactics of the successful participants. Item Open AccessThe permutation flow shop problem with sum-of-completion times performance criterion(John Wiley & Sons, 1993) Karabati, S.; Kouvelis, P.In this article we address the non-preemptive flow shop scheduling problem for minimization of the sum of the completion times. We present a new modeling framework and give a novel game-theoretic interpretation of the scheduling problem. A lower-bound generation scheme is developed by solving appropriately defined linear assignment problems. This scheme can also be used as a heuristic approach for the solution of the problem with satisfactory results. Its main use, however, is as a bounding scheme within a branch-and-bound procedure. Our branch-and-bound procedure improves significantly upon the best available enumerative procedures in the current literature. Extensive computational results are used to qualify the above statements. Item Open AccessA multi-family dynamic lot sizing problem with coordinated replenishments: a heuristic procedure(Taylor & Francis, 1993) Mercan, H. M.; Erenguc, S. S.Consider a manufacturing environment where multiple items are produced. These products are grouped into families due to their similarities in design and manufacturing. It pays off to coordinate the manufacture of products in a given family because preparing the facility for producing a family of products involves a major family setup. In addition each individual product in a given family may require a relatively minor setup. The objective is to determine the product lot sizes, over a finite planning horizon, that will minimize the total relevant cost, subject to demand and capacity constraints. In this paper we present an effective heuristic procedure for this problem. Computational results for the heuristic procedure are also reported. Our computational experience leads us to conclude that the heuristic procedure may be of considerable value as a decision making aid to production planners in a real-world setting. Item Open AccessThe development of consumer desire in marketizing and developing economies: the cases of Romania and Turkey(Association for Consumer Research, 1993) Ger, G.; Belk, R. W.; Lascu, D.-N.Developing and marketizing economies in Romania and Turkey are examined in the present research in an effort to understand how consumption desires change with the rapid influx of consumer goods and services into economies of scarcity. Based on observations, interviews, and questionnaires tapping a range of consumers in both countries, we found and describe rapidly escalating consumer desires, confusions, and frustrations. A case study of cigarette consumption in Romania illustrates these developments and the unique image of Western products before and after Communism. Item Open AccessEffect of discrete batch WIP transfer on the efficiency of production lines(Taylor & Francis, 1993) Erel, E.In this paper, the effect of discrete batch transfer of WIP between workstations on the efficiency of asynchronous production lines is analysed via a simulation model. The processing times are assumed to be random variables distributed according to specific distribution functions. The WIP transfer design problem involves determining the number of containers to allocate to each buffer location and the container capacity. Interesting and valuable information for practitioners has been obtained. It is found that loss in capacity occurs in the first few stations. Another finding is that an important portion of the lost capacity can be regained by allocating two containers to each buffer location, and if it is impossible to assign two containers to each location, then no single-container location should be adjacent to another single-container location. Item Open AccessHeuristic procedure for a multiproduct dynamic lot‐sizing problem with coordinated replenishments(John Wiley & Sons, 1994) Chung, C.-S.; Mercan, H. M.In this article we develop a heuristic procedure for a multiproduct dynamic lot-sizing problem. In this problem a joint setup cost is incurred when at least one product is ordered in a period. In addition to the joint setup cost a separate setup cost for each product ordered is also incurred. The objective is to determine the product lot sizes, over a finite planning horizon, that will minimize the total relevant cost such that the demand in each period for each product is satisfied without backlogging. In this article we present an effective heuristic procedure for this problem. Computational results for the heuristic procedure are also reported. Our computational experience leads us to conclude that the heuristic procedure may be of considerable value as a decision-making aid to production planners in a real-world setting. Item Open AccessPrint media planning in Saudi Arabia(Emerald, 1994) Tuncalp, S.Almost three‐quarters of advertising spending in Saudi Arabia goes to print media. This condition stems from the fact that some important media for developing countries including cinema, radio, and rental video are not available for placing advertisements. Despite being an important channel for advertising, the print medium has serious problems. These problems include limited circulation, inefficient distribution, lack of readership information, and unreasonable cost of advertising space. After discussing the characteristics of various newspapers and magazines published in Saudi Arabia, places these print advertising media alternatives in proper perspective with respect to their effectiveness.