Browsing Department of Economics by Author "Akyol, Pelin"
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Item Open AccessCompulsory schooling reform and intimate partner violence in Turkey(Elsevier, 2022-11) Akyol, Pelin; Kırdar, M. G.; Akyol, PelinWe examine how Turkey's 1997 compulsory schooling policy affects intimate partner violence (IPV) using the 2008 and 2014 Turkish National Survey of Domestic Violence Against Women and regression discontinuity design. We find conclusive evidence that the policy reduces physical violence against rural women, whereas this evidence is suggestive for the sample of all women. For the urban sample, we reveal large negative, but statistically insignificant, effects on sexual violence and partners preventing women from working. We find null policy effects on psychological violence for the sample of all women. The policy appears to have been protective against IPV for women overall. In addition, we show that the policy effects are realized through changing partner characteristics as well as women's increased schooling. Our results contradict previous evidence for Turkey, and we demonstrate that the previous evidence misclassifies two key variables. Item Open AccessEducation and voluntary work: Evidence from Turkish time use survey(Springer, 2022-06) Akar, B.; Akyol, Pelin; Okten, Çağla; Akyol, Pelin; Okten, ÇağlaWe use the extension of compulsory education from five to eight years in Turkey as an instrument for educational attainment to investigate the causal effects of education on voluntary work by utilizing Turkish Time Use Survey data. Existing studies use ordinary least squares regressions and establish a positive and significant association; however, such correlation may be induced by the endogeneity problems such as omitted variable bias and reverse causality. In line with the previous studies, our OLS results also show that there is a positive association between schooling and men’s voluntary work. However, when we use the education reform as an instrument for education, a different picture emerges. The exogenous education reform increased the education levels of individuals significantly. Using the education reform as an instrument for education level, we find that increased education of compliers has a negative but insignificant causal impact on the probability and hours of voluntary work for men. Our results suggest that omitted individual factors such as ability and intelligence, and unobservable family characteristics such as values and social norms are likely to have played a role in the positive association of education with voluntary work found in OLS studies. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Item Open AccessHit or miss? Test taking behavior in multiple choice exams(Groupe des Ecoles Nationales d'Economie et Statistique (GENES), 2022-09) Akyol, Pelin; Akyol, PelinThis paper is the first to structurally model how a test taker answers questions in a multiple choice exam. We allow for the possibility of a penalty for a wrong answer which makes risk averse examinees more likely to skip questions. Despite the lack of item response data, we can estimate the model by using the insight that skipping behavior, together with penalties for wrong answers, makes certain scores much more likely than others. Using data from the Turkish University Entrance Exam, we estimate the model and find that candidates’ attitudes towards risk differ according to their gender and ability with females and those with high ability being significantly more risk-averse. However, the impact of differences in risk aversion on scores is small. As a result, a higher guessing penalty increases the precision of the exam, and does so with a minimal impact on gender bias. Item Open AccessThe role of religion in female labor supply: Evidence from two Muslim denominations(Cambridge University Press, 2022) Akyol, Pelin; Ökten, Çaǧla; Akyol, Pelin; Ökten, ÇaǧlaThis paper investigates the association between religion and female labor market outcomes using new micro-level data on two distinct Muslim denominations in Turkey: Sunni and Alevi Muslims. We find a positive and significant association between being an Alevi Muslim and female labor force participation and employment, whereas there are no significant differences in male labor market outcomes between the two denominations. We provide evidence that Alevi Muslims have more gender-equal views regarding the role of women in the labor market and consider themselves as more modern. Both Sunnis and Alevis consider themselves as believers in religion (Islam). However, Sunnis are more likely to abide by the rules of religion. We argue that differences in views on gender roles and self-identity regarding modernity between the two denominations drive the results on female labor market outcomes. © Université catholique de Louvain 2022. Item Open AccessTaking PISA seriously: how accurate are low-stakes exams?(Springer, 2021-06) Akyol, Pelin; Krishna, K.; Wang, J.; Akyol, PelinPISA is seen as the gold standard for evaluating educational outcomes worldwide. Yet, being a low-stakes exam, students may not take it seriously resulting in downward biased scores and inaccurate rankings. This paper provides a method to identify and account for non-serious behavior in low-stakes exams by leveraging information in computer-based assessments in PISA 2015. Our method corrects for non-serious behavior by fully imputing scores for items not taken seriously. We compare the scores/rankings calculated by our method to the scores/rankings calculated by giving zero points to skipped items as well as to the scores/rankings calculated by treating skipped items at the end of the exam as if they were not administered, which is the procedure followed by PISA. We show that a country can improve its ranking by up to 15 places by encouraging its own students to take the exam seriously and that the PISA approach corrects for only about half of the bias generated by the non-seriousness.