Statistics of the MLE and approximate upper and lower bounds-Part I: Application to TOA estimation
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
5663 - 5676
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In nonlinear deterministic parameter estimation, the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is unable to attain the Cramér-Rao lower bound at low and medium signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) due the threshold and ambiguity phenomena. In order to evaluate the achieved mean-squared error (MSE) at those SNR levels, we propose new MSE approximations (MSEA) and an approximate upper bound by using the method of interval estimation (MIE). The mean and the distribution of the MLE are approximated as well. The MIE consists in splitting the a priori domain of the unknown parameter into intervals and computing the statistics of the estimator in each interval. Also, we derive an approximate lower bound (ALB) based on the Taylor series expansion of noise and an ALB family by employing the binary detection principle. The accuracy of the proposed MSEAs and the tightness of the derived approximate bounds are validated by considering the example of time-of-arrival estimation.
KeywordsMaximum likelihood estimator
Threshold and ambiguity phenomena
Upper and lowers bounds
Maximum likelihood estimator
Mean squared error