A comparative analysis of the 1960 and 1980 military interventions in Turkey
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The objective of this thesis is to analyse the evolution of the role of the military in Turkish politics as the guardian of the state. In doing so, the thesis provides a comparative analysis of the 1960 and the 1980 military interventions. This comparison allows us to see that, although both interventions had aimed at bringing the ” rationalist democracy " back in the political life, each intervention employed a different conception of democracy; used it as a ground for the legitimacy of the intervention; and acted, in fact, as a decision-maker to restore state power and state autonomy. The main argument of this thesis, which was constructed on and out of the comparison between the 1960 and 1980 military interventions, is that in a time when the military acts as a decision-maker and as a state elite, it functions as the guardian of the state. In order to subserve this argument, the thesis proceeds by delineating, in a detailed manner, the way in which each intervention was organised and attempted to restructure the political scene. It offers a comprehensive analysis of the 1961 and 1982 Constitutions in such a way as to demonstrate that, despite their differences, the military in each case placed the need to guard the state- its power and autonomy- at the apex of the political stage of Turkey.