Zâviye-Khankâhs and religious orders in the province of Karaman : the Seljukid, Karamaoğlu and the Ottoman periods, 1200-1512
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This dissertation analyzes the dervish lodges and Sufi orders in the Province of Karaman of the Ottoman Empire. The main source for this dissertation is the Register of the Pious Foundations of the Province of Karaman dated 888/1483. This register details accounts of the pious foundations of dervish lodges from the time of Seljukids and of the Karamanoğlus. There are other types of pious foundations such as mosques and madrasas also mentioned in the register. Yet, the main focus of this study will be the dervish lodges and Sufi orders. The register of 888/1483 will be analyzed in light of other sources such as chronicles, Sufi hagiographies, and literary works written during the Seljukid, Karamanoğlu, and classical Ottoman periods. The study demonstrates that the dervish lodges remained at the center of life during the period in question and that nearly every segment of society from the ruling class to the masses visited and shared their experiences in dervish lodges. In this dissertation, Sufi orders, particularly the Mevleviyye and the Halvetiyye, will also be analyzed in relation to their attitudes towards political authority.