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By both Kemalism and Atatürkism, reference is made to the thought patterns and views of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938), the founder of the Republic of Turkey (below “Turkey”), which was established in 1923. The founder’s ...
(Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-09)
Until recent decades, the military, on the whole, played a special role both in the Ottoman and Republican polities. In circa 1299, a military force, at the time consisting of warlords, formed the Ottoman principality. ...